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Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition


  • Szklo, Alexandre
  • Schaeffer, Roberto


In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources11And even integrate conventional with non-conventional crudes (mostly ultra-heavy crudes), reducing partially the premium perceived by the former in international oil markets. and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the “virtues of oil”. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables.

Suggested Citation

  • Szklo, Alexandre & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2006. "Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 2513-2522.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:31:y:2006:i:14:p:2513-2522
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    2. Raslavičius, Laurencas & Bazaras, Žilvinas, 2010. "Ecological assessment and economic feasibility to utilize first generation biofuels in cogeneration output cycle – The case of Lithuania," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3666-3673.
    3. Mansoor, Muhammad & Mariun, Norman & Ismail, Napsiah & Wahab, Noor Izzri Abdul, 2013. "A guidance chart for most probable solution directions in sustainable energy developments," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 306-313.
    4. Goldemberg, José & Schaeffer, Roberto & Szklo, Alexandre & Lucchesi, Rodrigo, 2014. "Oil and natural gas prospects in South America: Can the petroleum industry pave the way for renewables in Brazil?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 58-70.
    5. Szklo, Alexandre & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2007. "Fuel specification, energy consumption and CO2 emission in oil refineries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1075-1092.
    6. van Ruijven, Bas & van Vuuren, Detlef P., 2009. "Oil and natural gas prices and greenhouse gas emission mitigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4797-4808, November.
    7. Castelo Branco, David A. & Gomes, Gabriel L. & Szklo, Alexandre S., 2010. "Challenges and technological opportunities for the oil refining industry: A Brazilian refinery case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 3098-3105, June.
    8. Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K. & Rezaei, Jafar & de Brito, Marisa P. & Tavasszy, Lóránt A., 2016. "The influence of external factors on supply chain sustainability goals of the oil and gas industry," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 302-314.
    9. Szklo, Alexandre & Machado, Giovani & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2007. "Future oil production in Brazil--Estimates based on a Hubbert model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2360-2367, April.
    10. Castelo Branco, David A. & Szklo, Alexandre S. & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2010. "Co2e emissions abatement costs of reducing natural gas flaring in Brazil by investing in offshore GTL plants producing premium diesel," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 158-167.
    11. Yusaf, T.F. & Yousif, B.F. & Elawad, M.M., 2011. "Crude palm oil fuel for diesel-engines: Experimental and ANN simulation approaches," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 4871-4878.
    12. Park, Sung Ho & Lee, Seung Jong & Lee, Jin Wook & Chun, Sung Nam & Lee, Jung Bin, 2015. "The quantitative evaluation of two-stage pre-combustion CO2 capture processes using the physical solvents with various design parameters," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 47-55.

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