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Financing renewable energy infrastructure: Formulation, pricing and impact of a carbon revenue bond


  • Tang, Amy
  • Chiara, Nicola
  • Taylor, John E.


Renewable energy systems depend on large financial incentives to compete with conventional generation methods. Market-based incentives, including state-level REC markets and international carbon markets have been proposed as solutions to increase renewable energy investment. In this paper we introduce and formulate a carbon revenue bond, a financing tool to complement environmental credit markets to encourage renewable energy investment. To illustrate its use, we value the bond by predicting future revenue using stochastic processes after analyzing historical price data. Three illustrative examples are presented for renewable energy development in three different markets: Europe, Australia and New Jersey. Our findings reveal that the sale of a carbon revenue bond with a ten year maturity can finance a significant portion of a project's initial cost.

Suggested Citation

  • Tang, Amy & Chiara, Nicola & Taylor, John E., 2012. "Financing renewable energy infrastructure: Formulation, pricing and impact of a carbon revenue bond," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 691-703.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:45:y:2012:i:c:p:691-703 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.03.022

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    Cited by:

    1. Zeng, Yaxiong & Klabjan, Diego & Arinez, Jorge, 2015. "Distributed solar renewable generation: Option contracts with renewable energy credit uncertainty," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 295-305.
    2. Lee, Cheuk Wing & Zhong, Jin, 2015. "Financing and risk management of renewable energy projects with a hybrid bond," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 779-787.
    3. Lee, Cheuk Wing & Zhong, Jin, 2014. "Top down strategy for renewable energy investment: Conceptual framework and implementation," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 761-773.
    4. Thapar, Sapan & Sharma, Seema & Verma, Ashu, 2016. "Economic and environmental effectiveness of renewable energy policy instruments: Best practices from India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 487-498.
    5. Andreas Welling, 2017. "Green Finance: Recent developments, characteristics and important actors," FEMM Working Papers 170002, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
    6. repec:eee:rensus:v:74:y:2017:i:c:p:860-872 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Osmani, Atif & Zhang, Jun & Gonela, Vinay & Awudu, Iddrisu, 2013. "Electricity generation from renewables in the United States: Resource potential, current usage, technical status, challenges, strategies, policies, and future directions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 454-472.
    8. Ackah, Ishmael & Kizys, Renatas, 2015. "Green growth in oil producing African countries: A panel data analysis of renewable energy demand," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1157-1166.
    9. Ming, Zeng & Ximei, Liu & Yulong, Li & Lilin, Peng, 2014. "Review of renewable energy investment and financing in China: Status, mode, issues and countermeasures," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 23-37.
    10. Farooquee, Arsalan Ali & Shrimali, Gireesh, 2016. "Making renewable energy competitive in India: Reducing financing costs via a government-sponsored hedging facility," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 518-528.
    11. Osmani, Atif & Zhang, Jun, 2014. "Economic and environmental optimization of a large scale sustainable dual feedstock lignocellulosic-based bioethanol supply chain in a stochastic environment," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 572-587.
    12. Shrimali, Gireesh & Nelson, David & Goel, Shobhit & Konda, Charith & Kumar, Raj, 2013. "Renewable deployment in India: Financing costs and implications for policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 28-43.


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