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An empirical typology of energy services based on a well-developed market: France


  • Duplessis, Bruno
  • Adnot, Jérôme
  • Dupont, Maxime
  • Racapé, François


The investigation is an attempt to apply a set of consistent and official definitions of energy services (ES), energy efficiency services (EES) and energy performance contracting (EPC) on a well-developed market: France. After defining the historical context of the French market the authors describe the types of offers that are presently made and that fall within the definition of energy services. There are many classic and novel factors for the success of energy services. For instance, the energy services market is now partly structured by the CEE scheme, the French ‘white certificates’ or ‘energy certificates scheme’. Also the grid problems lead to new services. The companies active on the market are described as a result of an empirical survey of ES market in France. This empirical survey of ES market in France includes estimates of the number of companies and of their turnover both for ES and EES. Examples and case studies are developed as a background.

Suggested Citation

  • Duplessis, Bruno & Adnot, Jérôme & Dupont, Maxime & Racapé, François, 2012. "An empirical typology of energy services based on a well-developed market: France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 268-276.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:45:y:2012:i:c:p:268-276 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.02.031

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Okay, Nesrin & Akman, Ugur, 2010. "Analysis of ESCO activities using country indicators," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 2760-2771, December.
    2. Vine, Edward, 2005. "An international survey of the energy service company (ESCO) industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 691-704, March.
    3. Bertoldi, Paolo & Rezessy, Silvia & Vine, Edward, 2006. "Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1818-1832, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Overholm, Harald, 2015. "Spreading the rooftop revolution: What policies enable solar-as-a-service?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 69-79.
    2. Akman, Ugur & Okay, Esin & Okay, Nesrin, 2013. "Current snapshot of the Turkish ESCO market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 106-115.
    3. Helms, Thorsten, 2016. "Asset transformation and the challenges to servitize a utility business model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 98-112.
    4. Helms, Thorsten & Loock, Moritz & Bohnsack, René, 2016. "Timing-based business models for flexibility creation in the electric power sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 348-358.
    5. repec:eee:enepol:v:114:y:2018:i:c:p:63-76 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Stuart, Elizabeth & Larsen, Peter H. & Goldman, Charles A. & Gilligan, Donald, 2014. "A method to estimate the size and remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO (energy service company) industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 362-371.


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