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Analysis of potential energy saving and CO2 emission reduction of home appliances and commercial equipments in China


  • Zhou, Nan
  • Fridley, David
  • McNeil, Michael
  • Zheng, Nina
  • Letschert, Virginie
  • Ke, Jing
  • Saheb, Yamina


China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products, and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline "frozen efficiency" scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the "Continued Improvement Scenario" (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The "Best Practice Scenario" (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best-practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under "CIS", cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503Â TWh, and annual CO2 emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a "BPS" scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450Â TWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhou, Nan & Fridley, David & McNeil, Michael & Zheng, Nina & Letschert, Virginie & Ke, Jing & Saheb, Yamina, 2011. "Analysis of potential energy saving and CO2 emission reduction of home appliances and commercial equipments in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 4541-4550, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:8:p:4541-4550

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Schiellerup, P., 2002. "An examination of the effectiveness of the EU minimum standard on cold appliances: the British case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 327-332, March.
    2. Vine, Edward & du Pont, Peter & Waide, Paul, 2001. "Evaluating the impact of appliance efficiency labeling programs and standards: process, impact, and market transformation evaluations," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 1041-1059.
    3. Zhou, Nan & Levine, Mark D. & Price, Lynn, 2010. "Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6439-6452, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Catherine Wolfram & Orie Shelef & Paul Gertler, 2012. "How Will Energy Demand Develop in the Developing World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(1), pages 119-138, Winter.
    2. Meng, Ming & Niu, Dongxiao & Shang, Wei, 2012. "CO2 emissions and economic development: China's 12th five-year plan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 468-475.
    3. Cabeza, Luisa F. & Urge-Vorsatz, Diana & McNeil, Michael A. & Barreneche, Camila & Serrano, Susana, 2014. "Investigating greenhouse challenge from growing trends of electricity consumption through home appliances in buildings," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 188-193.
    4. Fang Wang & Yunqing Rao & Chaoyong Zhang & Qiuhua Tang & Liping Zhang, 2016. "Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Scheduling in Turning Processes," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(8), pages 1-20, August.
    5. Paul J. Gertler & Orie Shelef & Catherine D. Wolfram & Alan Fuchs, 2016. "The Demand for Energy-Using Assets among the World's Rising Middle Classes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(6), pages 1366-1401, June.
    6. Fang, Guochang & Tian, Lixin & Sun, Mei & Fu, Min, 2012. "Analysis and application of a novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction dynamic evolution system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 291-299.
    7. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:3:p:895-:d:137222 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Ma, Guo & Andrews-Speed, Philip & Zhang, Jiandong, 2013. "Chinese consumer attitudes towards energy saving: The case of household electrical appliances in Chongqing," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 591-602.
    9. Khanna, Nina Zheng & Zhou, Nan & Fridley, David & Fino-Chen, Cecilia, 2013. "Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 646-655.
    10. McNeil, Michael A. & Feng, Wei & de la Rue du Can, Stephane & Khanna, Nina Zheng & Ke, Jing & Zhou, Nan, 2016. "Energy efficiency outlook in China’s urban buildings sector through 2030," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 532-539.
    11. Al-Sumaiti, Ameena Saad & Salama, Magdy M.A. & El-Moursi, Mohamed, 2017. "Enabling electricity access in developing countries: A probabilistic weather driven house based approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 531-548.
    12. Lo, Kevin, 2014. "A critical review of China's rapidly developing renewable energy and energy efficiency policies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 508-516.
    13. Kusaka, Wakana & Kojima, Michikazu & Watanabe, Mariko, 2012. "Environmental consciousness, economic gain and consumer choice of energy efficient appliances in Thailand, China and India," IDE Discussion Papers 345, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    14. Letschert, Virginie & Desroches, Louis-Benoit & Ke, Jing & McNeil, Michael, 2013. "Energy efficiency – How far can we raise the bar? Revealing the potential of best available technologies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 72-82.
    15. Yin, Xiang & Chen, Wenying, 2013. "Trends and development of steel demand in China: A bottom–up analysis," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 407-415.
    16. Harmsen, Robert & Graus, Wina, 2013. "How much CO2 emissions do we reduce by saving electricity? A focus on methods," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 803-812.
    17. Khanna, Nina Zheng & Guo, Jin & Zheng, Xinye, 2016. "Effects of demand side management on Chinese household electricity consumption: Empirical findings from Chinese household survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 113-125.

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