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Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study


  • Zarnikau, Jay


The development of renewable energy in markets with competition at wholesale and retail levels poses challenges not present in areas served by vertically-integrated utilities. The intermittent nature of some renewable energy resources impact reliability, operations, and market prices, in turn affecting all market participants. Meeting renewable energy goals may require coordination among many market players. These challenges may be successfully overcome by imposing goals, establishing trading mechanisms, and implementing operational changes in competitive markets. This strategy has contributed to Texas' leadership among all US states in non-hydro renewable energy production. While Texas has been largely successful in accommodating over 9000Â MW of wind power capacity, this extensive reliance upon wind power has also created numerous problems. Higher levels of operating reserves must now be procured. Market prices often go negative in the proximity of wind farms. Inaccurate wind forecasts have led to reliability problems. Five billion dollars in transmission investment will be necessary to facilitate further wind farm projects. Despite these costs, wind power is generally viewed as a net benefit.

Suggested Citation

  • Zarnikau, Jay, 2011. "Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 3906-3913, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:7:p:3906-3913

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. W. Edward Steinmueller, 2009. "Comments," Chapters,in: The New Economics of Technology Policy, chapter 14 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2009. "The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators: Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3-4), pages 288-296, September.
    3. Zarnikau, Jay, 2003. "Consumer demand for `green power' and energy efficiency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(15), pages 1661-1672, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sadeghi, Hadi & Rashidinejad, Masoud & Abdollahi, Amir, 2017. "A comprehensive sequential review study through the generation expansion planning," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 1369-1394.
    2. Dong, Yanli & Shimada, Koji, 2017. "Evolution from the renewable portfolio standards to feed-in tariff for the deployment of renewable energy in Japan," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 590-596.
    3. Chi-Keung Woo, Ira Horowitz, Brian Horii, Ren Orans, and Jay Zarnikau, 2012. "Blowing in the Wind: Vanishing Payoffs of a Tolling Agreement for Natural-gas-fired Generation of Electricity in Texas," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    4. repec:eee:energy:v:144:y:2018:i:c:p:887-902 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Bae, Mungyu & Kim, Hwantae & Kim, Eugene & Chung, Albert Yongjoon & Kim, Hwangnam & Roh, Jae Hyung, 2014. "Toward electricity retail competition: Survey and case study on technical infrastructure for advanced electricity market system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 252-273.
    6. Christian Brannstrom & Mary Tilton & Andrew Klein & Wendy Jepson, 2015. "Spatial Distribution of Estimated Wind-Power Royalties in West Texas," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-18, December.
    7. Levin, Todd & Botterud, Audun, 2015. "Electricity market design for generator revenue sufficiency with increased variable generation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 392-406.
    8. Woo, C.K. & Sreedharan, P. & Hargreaves, J. & Kahrl, F. & Wang, J. & Horowitz, I., 2014. "A review of electricity product differentiation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 262-272.
    9. repec:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:531-543 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2012. "Are fluctuations in production of renewable energy permanent or transitory?," Monash Economics Working Papers 05-12, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    11. Fremeth Adam & Marcus Alfred A., 2016. "The role of governance systems and rules in wind energy development: evidence from Minnesota and Texas," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 18(3), pages 337-365, October.
    12. Richard Green & Adonis Yatchew, 2012. "Support Schemes for Renewable Energy: An Economic Analysis," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
    13. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2013. "Are fluctuations in US production of renewable energy permanent or transitory?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 483-488.
    14. Alagappan, L. & Orans, R. & Woo, C.K., 2011. "What drives renewable energy development?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5099-5104, September.
    15. Daeho Kim & Jimin Kim & Choongwan Koo & Taehoon Hong, 2014. "An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(8), pages 1-22, August.
    16. Würzburg, Klaas & Labandeira, Xavier & Linares, Pedro, 2013. "Renewable generation and electricity prices: Taking stock and new evidence for Germany and Austria," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(S1), pages 159-171.
    17. Zhao, Yong & Tang, Kam Ki & Wang, Li-li, 2013. "Do renewable electricity policies promote renewable electricity generation? Evidence from panel data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 887-897.
    18. Woo, C.K. & Moore, J. & Schneiderman, B. & Ho, T. & Olson, A. & Alagappan, L. & Chawla, K. & Toyama, N. & Zarnikau, J., 2016. "Merit-order effects of renewable energy and price divergence in California’s day-ahead and real-time electricity markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 299-312.
    19. Chi-Keung Woo, Ira Horowitz, Jay Zarnikau, Jack Moore, Brendan Schneiderman, Tony Ho, and Eric Leung, 2016. "What Moves the Ex Post Variable Profit of Natural-Gas-Fired Generation in California?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    20. Sreedharan, P. & Farbes, J. & Cutter, E. & Woo, C.K. & Wang, J., 2016. "Microgrid and renewable generation integration: University of California, San Diego," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 709-720.
    21. Lam, J.C.K. & Woo, C.K. & Kahrl, F. & Yu, W.K., 2013. "What moves wind energy development in China? Show me the money!," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 423-429.
    22. Holburn, Guy L.F., 2012. "Assessing and managing regulatory risk in renewable energy: Contrasts between Canada and the United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 654-665.


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