Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand
Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO2 emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or "bottom-up", model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200Â g of CO2 per passenger-kilometre (gÂ CO2 per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390Â g CO2 per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the "hotel" function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600Â MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO2 emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained.
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