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Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand


  • Howitt, Oliver J.A.
  • Revol, Vincent G.N.
  • Smith, Inga J.
  • Rodger, Craig J.


Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO2 emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or "bottom-up", model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO2 per passenger-kilometre (g CO2 per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO2 per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the "hotel" function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO2 emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained.

Suggested Citation

  • Howitt, Oliver J.A. & Revol, Vincent G.N. & Smith, Inga J. & Rodger, Craig J., 2010. "Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2552-2560, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:2552-2560

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Njegovan, Nenad, 2006. "Elasticities of demand for leisure air travel: A system modelling approach," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 33-39.
    2. Gössling, Stefan & Peeters, Paul & Ceron, Jean-Paul & Dubois, Ghislain & Patterson, Trista & Richardson, Robert B., 2005. "The eco-efficiency of tourism," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 417-434, September.
    3. Mary Coleman & David Meyer & David Scheffman, 2003. "Economic Analyses of Mergers at the FTC: The Cruise Ships Mergers Investigation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 23(2), pages 121-155, September.
    4. Brons, Martijn & Pels, Eric & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 2002. "Price elasticities of demand for passenger air travel: a meta-analysis," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 165-175.
    5. Smith, Inga J. & Rodger, Craig J., 2009. "Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3438-3447, September.
    6. Becken, Susanne & Frampton, Chris & Simmons, David, 2001. "Energy consumption patterns in the accommodation sector--the New Zealand case," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 371-386, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Winkel, R. & Weddige, U. & Johnsen, D. & Hoen, V. & Papaefthimiou, S., 2016. "Shore Side Electricity in Europe: Potential and environmental benefits," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 584-593.
    2. Jing Li & Kevin Lo & Pingyu Zhang & Meng Guo, 2016. "Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(10), pages 1-13, September.
    3. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:5:p:1059-:d:143241 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Fitzgerald, Warren B. & Howitt, Oliver J.A. & Smith, Inga J., 2011. "Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1521-1531, March.
    5. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:3:p:783-:d:135959 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Tichavska, Miluše & Tovar, Beatriz, 2015. "Port-city exhaust emission model: An application to cruise and ferry operations in Las Palmas Port," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 347-360.
    7. repec:eee:touman:v:44:y:2014:i:c:p:82-85 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Gössling, Stefan, 2013. "National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 433-442.
    9. Tichavska, Miluše & Tovar, Beatriz, 2015. "Environmental cost and eco-efficiency from vessel emissions in Las Palmas Port," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 126-140.


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