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A class of adaptive importance sampling weighted EM algorithms for efficient and robust posterior and predictive simulation

Author

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  • Hoogerheide, Lennart
  • Opschoor, Anne
  • van Dijk, Herman K.

Abstract

A class of adaptive sampling methods is introduced for efficient posterior and predictive simulation. The proposed methods are robust in the sense that they can handle target distributions that exhibit non-elliptical shapes such as multimodality and skewness. The basic method makes use of sequences of importance weighted Expectation Maximization steps in order to efficiently construct a mixture of Student-t densities that approximates accurately the target distribution–typically a posterior distribution, of which we only require a kernel–in the sense that the Kullback–Leibler divergence between target and mixture is minimized. We label this approach Mixture oftby Importance Sampling weighted Expectation Maximization (MitISEM). The constructed mixture is used as a candidate density for quick and reliable application of either Importance Sampling (IS) or the Metropolis–Hastings (MH) method. We also introduce three extensions of the basic MitISEM approach. First, we propose a method for applying MitISEM in a sequential manner, so that the candidate distribution for posterior simulation is cleverly updated when new data become available. Our results show that the computational effort reduces enormously, while the quality of the approximation remains almost unchanged. This sequential approach can be combined with a tempering approach, which facilitates the simulation from densities with multiple modes that are far apart. Second, we introduce a permutation-augmented MitISEM approach. This is useful for importance or Metropolis–Hastings sampling from posterior distributions in mixture models without the requirement of imposing identification restrictions on the model’s mixture regimes’ parameters. Third, we propose a partial MitISEM approach, which aims at approximating the joint distribution by estimating a product of marginal and conditional distributions. This division can substantially reduce the dimension of the approximation problem, which facilitates the application of adaptive importance sampling for posterior simulation in more complex models with larger numbers of parameters. Our results indicate that the proposed methods can substantially reduce the computational burden in econometric models like DCC or mixture GARCH models and a mixture instrumental variables model.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoogerheide, Lennart & Opschoor, Anne & van Dijk, Herman K., 2012. "A class of adaptive importance sampling weighted EM algorithms for efficient and robust posterior and predictive simulation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 171(2), pages 101-120.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:171:y:2012:i:2:p:101-120
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2012.06.011
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hoogerheide, Lennart & van Dijk, Herman K., 2010. "Bayesian forecasting of Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall using adaptive importance sampling," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 231-247, April.
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    4. Hoogerheide, Lennart F. & Kaashoek, Johan F. & van Dijk, Herman K., 2007. "On the shape of posterior densities and credible sets in instrumental variable regression models with reduced rank: An application of flexible sampling methods using neural networks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 139(1), pages 154-180, July.
    5. Luc Bauwens & Michel Lubrano, 1998. "Bayesian inference on GARCH models using the Gibbs sampler," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 1(Conferenc), pages 23-46.
    6. Kloek, Tuen & van Dijk, Herman K, 1978. "Bayesian Estimates of Equation System Parameters: An Application of Integration by Monte Carlo," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 1-19, January.
    7. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-370, March.
    8. Jana Eklund & Sune Karlsson, 2007. "Forecast Combination and Model Averaging Using Predictive Measures," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2-4), pages 329-363.
    9. Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia & Wagner, Helga, 2008. "Marginal likelihoods for non-Gaussian models using auxiliary mixture sampling," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(10), pages 4608-4624, June.
    10. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Keueger, 1991. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(4), pages 979-1014.
    11. Fruhwirth-Schnatter S., 2001. "Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation of Classical and Dynamic Switching and Mixture Models," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 96, pages 194-209, March.
    12. van Dijk, H. K. & Kloek, T., 1980. "Further experience in Bayesian analysis using Monte Carlo integration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 307-328, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Francois Richard, 2016. "Finite Gaussian Mixture Approximations to Analytically Intractable Density Kerkels," Working Paper 5980, Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh.
    2. Waggoner, Daniel F. & Wu, Hongwei & Zha, Tao, 2016. "Striated Metropolis–Hastings sampler for high-dimensional models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 192(2), pages 406-420.
    3. Scharth, Marcel & Kohn, Robert, 2016. "Particle efficient importance sampling," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(1), pages 133-147.
    4. Nalan Baştürk & Stefano Grassi & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2016. "Parallelization Experience with Four Canonical Econometric Models Using ParMitISEM," Econometrics, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-20, March.
    5. Ardia, David & Hoogerheide, Lennart F., 2014. "GARCH models for daily stock returns: Impact of estimation frequency on Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall forecasts," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(2), pages 187-190.
    6. Markku Lanne & Jani Luoto, 2015. "Estimation of DSGE Models under Diffuse Priors and Data-Driven Identification Constraints," CREATES Research Papers 2015-37, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    7. David Ardia & Lukasz T. Gatarek & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2016. "Return and Risk of Pairs Trading Using a Simulation-Based Bayesian Procedure for Predicting Stable Ratios of Stock Prices," Econometrics, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-19, March.
    8. Nomen Nescio, 2013. "Nomen Nescio," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-095 not issued, Tinbergen Institute.
    9. Nalan Basturk & Cem Cakmakli & S. Pinar Ceyhan & Herman K. van Dijk, 2014. "On the Rise of Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-085/III, Tinbergen Institute, revised 04 Sep 2014.
    10. István Barra & Lennart Hoogerheide & Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas, 2017. "Joint Bayesian Analysis of Parameters and States in Nonlinear non‐Gaussian State Space Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(5), pages 1003-1026, August.
    11. Gerlach, Richard & Abeywardana, Sachin, 2016. "Variational Bayes for assessment of dynamic quantile forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 1385-1402.
    12. Nalan Basturk & Cem Cakmakli & S. Pinar Ceyhan & Herman K. van Dijk, 2013. "Historical Developments in Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-191/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    13. Lukasz Gatarek & Lennart Hoogerheide & Koen Hooning & Herman K. van Dijk, 2013. "Censored Posterior and Predictive Likelihood in Left-Tail Prediction for Accurate Value at Risk Estimation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-060/III, Tinbergen Institute, revised 06 Mar 2014.
    14. repec:gam:jecnmx:v:4:y:2016:i:1:p:11:d:65219 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Nalan Basturk & Stefano Grassi & Lennart Hoogerheide & Herman K. van Dijk, 2016. "Time-varying Combinations of Bayesian Dynamic Models and Equity Momentum Strategies," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 16-099/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    16. Sergei Seleznev, 2016. "Solving DSGE models with stochastic trends," Bank of Russia Working Paper Series wps15, Bank of Russia.
    17. repec:gam:jecnmx:v:4:y:2016:i:1:p:14:d:65426 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Mixture of Student-t distributions; Importance sampling; Kullback–Leibler divergence; Expectation Maximization; Metropolis–Hastings algorithm; Predictive likelihood; DCC GARCH; Mixture GARCH; Instrumental variables;

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics

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