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The economic influence of community-based dolphin watching on a local economy in a developing country: Implications for conservation

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  • Mustika, Putu Liza Kusuma
  • Birtles, Alastair
  • Welters, Riccardo
  • Marsh, Helene

Abstract

This study examined the direct economic impacts of dolphin watching tourism in Lovina, north Bali (Indonesia). The study applied the direct expenditure approach to tourists who went on dolphin tours in Lovina in 2008 and 2009. This industry depends on predictable access to coastal dolphins, attracts at least 37,000 overnight visitors per annum (~60% of the region's overnight tourists) and contributes at least 46% of the total direct expenditures (USD 4.1 million p.a.) for accommodation, meals, transportation, communication and souvenirs. The 179 boatmen enjoy an above average income and thus have little financial incentive to leave the industry. Nonetheless, trip fees constitute only 3% of the total expenditures generated by dolphin watching tourism. The remainder e.g., for accommodation, restaurants and transport is spent with local businesses which become the substantial beneficiaries and hence these stakeholders should also be consulted prior to any management intervention. This profitable industry supports 35–100 tour boats operating daily. The number of boats should be regulated to address concerns over their impacts on the dolphins and visitor satisfaction.

Suggested Citation

  • Mustika, Putu Liza Kusuma & Birtles, Alastair & Welters, Riccardo & Marsh, Helene, 2012. "The economic influence of community-based dolphin watching on a local economy in a developing country: Implications for conservation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 11-20.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:79:y:2012:i:c:p:11-20 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.04.018
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M. & Sumaila, U.R. & Kaschner, K. & Pauly, D., 2010. "The global potential for whale watching," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1273-1278, November.
    2. Joachim H. Spangenberg, 2004. "Reconciling sustainability and growth: criteria, indicators, policies," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 74-86.
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    4. A. Ellerman, 2005. "A Note on Tradeable Permits," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 31(2), pages 123-131, June.
    5. Tisdell, Clement A. & Wilson, Clevo, 2004. "Economics, Wildlife Tourism and Conservation: Three Case Studies," Economics, Ecology and Environment Working Papers 51416, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
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