IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/corfin/v15y2009i4p447-468.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Economic impact of political barriers to cross-border acquisitions: An empirical study of CNOOC's unsuccessful takeover of Unocal

Author

Listed:
  • Wan, Kam-Ming
  • Wong, Ka-fu

Abstract

In 2005, the US Congress challenged the acquisition by CNOOC (a Chinese state-owned enterprise) of Unocal (a US firm). This challenge creates a political barrier for foreign companies to acquire US oil companies. This paper examines the stock price reaction of US oil companies to this political opposition. Using an event study methodology, we find that this political barrier resulted in a substantial decline in the market value of US oil companies. For a period of 44Â days, during which six anti-CNOOC-takeover political events occurred, the cumulative decline in the market value of a portfolio of 13 US oil refining firms was $47.5Â billion and that of a portfolio of 66 US oil and gas exploration firms was $11.4Â billion. This study is the first to analyze and quantify the stock price reaction of US non-merging firms to political barriers to cross-border acquisitions. It also has a policy implication regarding the recent enactment of the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007.

Suggested Citation

  • Wan, Kam-Ming & Wong, Ka-fu, 2009. "Economic impact of political barriers to cross-border acquisitions: An empirical study of CNOOC's unsuccessful takeover of Unocal," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 447-468, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:15:y:2009:i:4:p:447-468
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929-1199(09)00033-9
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ryngaert, Michael & Netter, Jeffrey M, 1988. "Shareholder Wealth Effects of the Ohio Antitakeover Law," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(2), pages 373-383, Fall.
    2. Kenneth Lehn & Annette Poulsen, 1989. "Free Cash Flow and Stockholder Gains in Going Private Transactions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 771-787, July.
    3. Rodney T. Smith & Michael Bradley & Greg Jarrell, 1986. "Studying Firm-Specific Effects of Regulation with Stock Market Data: An Application to Oil Price Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(4), pages 467-489, Winter.
    4. Bittlingmayer, George & Hazlett, Thomas W., 2000. "DOS Kapital: Has antitrust action against Microsoft created value in the computer industry?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 329-359, March.
    5. Blonigen, Bruce A, 1997. "Firm-Specific Assets and the Link between Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 447-465, June.
    6. Rossi, Stefano & Volpin, Paolo F., 2004. "Cross-country determinants of mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 277-304, November.
    7. Melicher, Ronald W & Ledolter, Johannes & D'Antonio, Louis J, 1983. "A Time Series Analysis of Aggregate Merger Activity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 423-430, August.
    8. Harris, Robert S & Ravenscraft, David, 1991. " The Role of Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the U.S. Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 825-844, July.
    9. Mitchell, Mark L. & Netter, Jeffry M., 1989. "Triggering the 1987 stock market crash : Antitakeover provisions in the proposed house ways and means tax bill?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 37-68, September.
    10. Devra L. Golbe & Lawrence J. White, 1988. "A Time-Series Analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions in the U.S. Economy," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 265-310 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    12. Sadorsky, Perry, 2001. "Risk factors in stock returns of Canadian oil and gas companies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 17-28, January.
    13. G. William Schwert, 2000. "Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2599-2640, December.
    14. Eun, Cheol S. & Kolodny, Richard & Scheraga, Carl, 1996. "Cross-border acquisitions and shareholder wealth: Tests of the synergy and internalization hypotheses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1559-1582, November.
    15. Izan, Haji Y, 1980. "Mandatory Audit Regulation for Banks: An Empirical Evaluation of Its Effects," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(4), pages 377-396, October.
    16. Harold Mulherin, J., 2007. "Measuring the costs and benefits of regulation: Conceptual issues in securities markets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2-3), pages 421-437, June.
    17. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    18. Lehn, Kenneth & Poulsen, Annette, 1989. " Free Cash Flow and Stockholder Gains in Going Private Transactions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 771-787, July.
    19. Boehmer, Ekkehart & Masumeci, Jim & Poulsen, Annette B., 1991. "Event-study methodology under conditions of event-induced variance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 253-272, December.
    20. Cushman, David O, 1985. "Real Exchange Rate Risk, Expectations, and the Level of Direct Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(2), pages 297-308, May.
    21. repec:bla:joares:v:21:y:1983:i:1:p:184-221 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Revisiting and Reinforcing the Farmers Fox Theory: A Study (Test) of Three Cases in Cross-border Inbound Acquisitions," MPRA Paper 63561, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    2. repec:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:5:p:839-854 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Determinants of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: A Comprehensive Review and Future Direction," MPRA Paper 63969, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    4. Reddy, K.S. & Xie, En & Huang, Yuanyuan, 2016. "Cross-border acquisitions by state-owned and private enterprises: A perspective from emerging economies," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1147-1170.
    5. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.
    6. repec:bla:stratm:v:38:y:2017:i:9:p:1915-1934 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Alex Ng & Raymond A. K. Cox, 2016. "Corporate takeovers in the US oil and gas sector," Journal of Economic and Financial Studies (JEFS), LAR Center Press, vol. 4(1), pages 23-34, February.
    8. repec:eee:chieco:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:142-164 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "The State of Case Study Research in Mergers & Acquisitions: A Review of the Literature in Different Management Streams," MPRA Paper 63939, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    10. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2014. "Institutional Dichotomy and Cross-Border Inbound Acquisitions: A Study of Three Cases," MPRA Paper 64221, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
    11. Yoo, Kyungjin & Lee, Youah & Heo, Eunnyeong, 2013. "Economic effects by merger and acquisition types in the renewable energy sector: An event study approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 694-701.
    12. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Why do Cross-border Merger/Acquisition Deals become Delayed, or Unsuccessful? – A Cross-Case Analysis in the Dynamic Industries," MPRA Paper 63940, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:15:y:2009:i:4:p:447-468. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.