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Investment in site-specific crop management under uncertainty: implications for nitrogen pollution control and environmental policy

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  • Khanna, Madhu
  • Isik, Murat
  • Winter-Nelson, Alex

Abstract

This paper applies an option-pricing model to analyze the impact of uncertainty about output prices and expectations of declining fixed costs on the optimal timing of investment in site-specific crop management (SSCM). It also analyzes the extent to which the level of spatial variability in soil conditions can mitigate the value of waiting to invest in SSCM and influence the optimal timing of adoption and create a preference for custom hiring rather than owner purchase of equipment. Numerical simulations show that while the net present value (NPV) rule predicts that immediate adoption is profitable under most of the soil conditions considered here, recognition of the option value of investment indicates that it is preferable to delay investment in SSCM for at least 3 years unless average soil quality is high and the variability in soil quality and fertility is high. The use of the option value approach reveals that the value of waiting to invest in SSCM raises the cost-share subsidy rates required to induce immediate adoption above the levels indicated by the NPV rule. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Khanna, Madhu & Isik, Murat & Winter-Nelson, Alex, 2000. "Investment in site-specific crop management under uncertainty: implications for nitrogen pollution control and environmental policy," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 9-21, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:24:y:2000:i:1:p:9-21
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alex Winter-Nelson & Koffi Amegbeto, 1998. "Option Values to Conservation and Agricultural Price Policy: Application to Terrace Construction in Kenya," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(2), pages 409-418.
    2. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    3. Babcock, Bruce A. & Pautsch, Gregory R., 1998. "Moving From Uniform To Variable Fertilizer Rates On Iowa Corn: Effects On Rates And Returns," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(02), December.
    4. Ray, Daryll E. & Richardson, James W. & Torre Ugarte, Daniel de la & Tiller, Kelly, 1998. "Estimating Price Variability In Agriculture: Implications For Decision Makers," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 30(01), July.
    5. Gary Kachanoski, 1999. "Economic Feasibility of Variable-Rate Technology for Nitrogen on Corn," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(4), pages 914-927.
    6. Watkins, K. Bradley & Lu, Yao-Chi & Huang, Wen-Yuan, 1998. "Economic And Environmental Feasibility Of Variable Rate Nitrogen Fertilizer Application With Carry-Over Effects," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(02), December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ihli, Hanna Julia & Musshoff, Oliver, 2013. "Understanding the Investment Behavior of Ugandan Smallholder Farmers: An Experimental Analysis," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150331, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Löfgren, Åsa & Millock, Katrin & Nauges, Céline, 2007. "Using Ex Post Data to Estimate the Hurdle Rate of Abatement Investments - An Application to the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry and Energy Sector," Working Papers in Economics 249, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    3. Isik, Murat, 2001. "Technology Adoption Decisions Under Uncertainty: Impacts Of Alternative Return Assumptions On Timing Of Adoption," 2001 Annual meeting, August 5-8, Chicago, IL 20658, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    4. Isik, Murat & Khanna, Madhu & Winter-Nelson, Alex, 2000. "Sequential Investment In Site-Specific Crop Management Under Output Price Uncertainty: Implications For Nitrogen Pollution Control," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21875, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Löfgren, Åsa & Millock, Katrin & Nauges, Céline, 2008. "The effect of uncertainty on pollution abatement investments: Measuring hurdle rates for Swedish industry," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, pages 475-491.
    6. Tzouramani, Irene & Mattas, Konstadinos, 2002. "Employing Real Options Methodology for Decision Making in Greenhouse Technology," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24835, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Murat Isik & Madhu Khanna, 2003. "Stochastic Technology, Risk Preferences, and Adoption of Site-Specific Technologies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 305-317.
    8. Viju, Crina & Kerr, William A. & Nolan, James F., 2006. "Subsidization of the Biofuel Industry: Security vs. Clean Air?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21321, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Tozer, Peter R., 2009. "Uncertainty and investment in precision agriculture - Is it worth the money?," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, pages 80-87.
    10. Robert Finger & Stéphanie Schmid, 2008. "Modeling agricultural production risk and the adaptation to climate change," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 68(1), pages 25-41, May.
    11. Isik, Murat & Coble, Keith H. & Hudson, Darren & House, Lisa O., 2003. "A model of entry-exit decisions and capacity choice under demand uncertainty," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 28(3), May.
    12. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00343702 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Finger, Robert & Gerwig, Claude N., 2007. "The Impact Of Climate Change On The Profitability Of Site Specific Technologies," 47th Annual Conference, Weihenstephan, Germany, September 26-28, 2007 7574, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
    14. Ihli, Hanna Julia & Musshoff, Oliver, 2013. "Investment Behavior of Ugandan Smallholder Farmers: An Experimental Analysis," Discussion Papers 154775, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    15. Li, Shoude, 2013. "Emission permit banking, pollution abatement and production–inventory control of the firm," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 679-685.
    16. I. Tzouramani & K. Mattas, 2004. "Employing real options methodology in agricultural investments: the case of greenhouse construction," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(6), pages 355-359.
    17. Ihli, Hanna Julia & Maart, Syster Christin & Musshoff, Oliver, 2012. "Investment and Disinvestment in Irrigation Technology – An Experimental Analysis of Farmers’ Decision Behavior –," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124532, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    18. Lavee, Doron, 2010. "The effect of water supply uncertainty on farmers' choice of crop portfolio," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(11), pages 1847-1854, November.
    19. Isik, Murat & Khanna, Madhu, 2002. "Variable-Rate Nitrogen Application Under Uncertainty: Implications For Profitability And Nitrogen Use," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 27(01), July.
    20. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00261523 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Murat Isik, 2006. "Implications of alternative stochastic processes for investment in agricultural technologies," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 21-27.
    22. Isik, Murat & Khanna, Madhu & Winter-Nelson, Alex, 1999. "Investment In Site Specific Crop Management Under Uncertainty," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21684, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    23. Baerenklau, Kenneth A. & Nergis, Nermin, 2006. "Controlling Dairy Nitrogen Emissions: A Dynamic Analysis of Herd Adjustment, Ground Water Discharges, and Air Emissions," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21448, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).

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