IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Microeconomic determinants of migrant remittances to Nigerian households


  • Nwosu O. Emmanuel

    (Centre for Demographic and Allied Research, Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka)

  • Fonta M. William

    (United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (UNU-INRA))

  • Aneke Gladys

    (Head, Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka)

  • Yuni N. Denis

    (Centre for Demographic and Allied Research, Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka)


This study analyses the determinants of both the decision to remit money and the total remittances by Nigerian migrants. The study distinguishes itself from other existing migration studies in Nigeria by focusing on the microeconomic determinants of remittances from both the sending and receiving end. A recent and richer remittances survey data for Nigeria by the World Bank is used to extend the analysis to both internal and international migration. Tobit and Heckit's models were used in the analyses. The empirical findings indicate that duration of the migrant in the country of residence, household asset, household size, living in OECD, highest level of education attained before migration, being male, being a son, daughter or father to the head of the household, and type of employment have statistically significant positive impact on both the probability of remitting and the amount of remittances sent by the migrant to the household. These findings vary significantly by the country of current residence of the migrants. All these suggest that the future inflow of remittances to Nigeria would largely depend on the migrant country of destination, level of education prior to migration, and the type of work done by the migrants in the country of current residence. The work situation of the migrant may in turn depend on the macroeconomic conditions in the country of residence.

Suggested Citation

  • Nwosu O. Emmanuel & Fonta M. William & Aneke Gladys & Yuni N. Denis, 2012. "Microeconomic determinants of migrant remittances to Nigerian households," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(4), pages 3425-3438.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-12-00711

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Riccardo Faini, 2007. "Remittances and the Brain Drain: Do More Skilled Migrants Remit More?," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 21(2), pages 177-191, May.
    3. Bettin, Giulia & Lucchetti, Riccardo & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Financial development and remittances: Micro-econometric evidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 184-186.
    4. Carlos Vargas-Silva & Peng Huang, 2006. "Macroeconomic determinantsof workers' remittances: Hostversus home country's economic conditions," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 81-99.
    5. El-Sakka, M. I. T. & McNabb, Robert, 1999. "The Macroeconomic Determinants of Emigrant Remittances," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1493-1502, August.
    6. Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-918, October.
    7. Jørgen Carling, 2008. "The determinants of migrant remittances," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press and Oxford Review of Economic Policy Limited, vol. 24(3), pages 582-599, Autumn.
    8. Osili, Una Okonkwo, 2004. "Migrants and Housing Investments: Theory and Evidence from Nigeria," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(4), pages 821-849, July.
    9. Siegfried, Nikolaus & Schiopu, Ioana, 2006. "Determinants of workers' remittances: evidence from the European Neighbouring Region," Working Paper Series 688, European Central Bank.
    10. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10842 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Flore Gubert, 2002. "Do Migrants Insure Those who Stay Behind? Evidence from the Kayes Area (Western Mali)," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 267-287.
    12. Agarwal, Reena & Horowitz, Andrew W., 2002. "Are International Remittances Altruism or Insurance? Evidence from Guyana Using Multiple-Migrant Households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2033-2044, November.
    13. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Susan Pozo, 2006. "Remittances as insurance: evidence from Mexican immigrants," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 19(2), pages 227-254, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Alleluyanatha, Esther & Awotide, Bola Amoke & Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul Martins & Coulibaly, Amadou Youssouf & Bello, Lateef & Abdoulaye, Tahirou & Manyong, Victor & Bamba, Zoumana, 2021. "Effect of Youth Migration and Remittances on RURAL Households’ Livelihoods in South-Eastern Nigeria," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315200, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. RANA Rezwanul Hasan & HASHMI Rubayyat, 2015. "The Determinants Of Worker Remittance In Terms Of Foreign Factors: The Case Of Bangladesh," Studies in Business and Economics, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 10(3), pages 81-93, December.
    3. William M. Fonta & Elias T. Ayuk & Jude O. Chukwu & Onyukwu E. Onyukwu & Cletus C. Agu & Innocent O. Umenwa, 2015. "Dynamics of remittance utilization by Nigerian households," Progress in Development Studies, , vol. 15(4), pages 343-357, October.
    4. Godfrey I. Ihedimma & Godstime I. Opara, 2020. "Remittance Inflow and Unemployment in Nigeria," Working Papers 20/103, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    5. Godfrey I. Ihedimma & Godstime I. Opara, 2020. "Remittance Inflow and Unemployment in Nigeria," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/103, African Governance and Development Institute..
    6. Godfrey I. Ihedimma & Godstime I. Opara, 2020. "Remittance Inflow and Unemployment in Nigeria," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/103, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    7. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan & Sherif Maher Hassan & Ribal Abi Raad, 2017. "Causes and Impacts of Remittances: Household Survey Evidence from Egypt," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201737, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahmed, Junaid & Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada, 2014. "What drives bilateral remittances to Pakistan? A gravity model approach," University of Göttingen Working Papers in Economics 209, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    2. Mduduzi Biyase & Fiona Tregenna, 2016. "Determinants of remittances in South Africa," SALDRU Working Papers 176, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
    3. Fethiye Tilbe, 2019. "Remittances and Social Policy: Reflecting on The Migration Conference 2019," Remittances Review, Remittances Review, vol. 4(2), pages 165-180, October.
    4. Kim, Jounghyeon, 2023. "Does population aging matter for remittances in developing countries?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1038-1056.
    5. Bharati Basu & James T. Bang, 2013. "Insurance and remittances: New evidence from Latin American immigrants to the US," Migration Letters, Migration Letters, vol. 10(3), pages 383-398, September.
    6. Ibrahim Sirkeci & Jeffrey H. Cohen & Dilip Ratha, 2012. "Migration and Remittances during the Global Financial Crisis and Beyond," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 13092, December.
    7. Gascón, Patricia & Larramona, Gemma & Salvador, Manuel, 2023. "The impact of digitalisation on remittances. Evidence from El Salvador," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(4).
    8. Junaid Ahmed & Junaid Ahmed & Mazhar Mughal & Inmaculada Martinez-Zarzoso, 2020. "Sending Money Home: Transaction Cost and Remittances to Developing Countries," PIDE-Working Papers 2020:175, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    9. Okayo Alphonsine COULIBALY, 2016. "Les Motivations Microéconomiques Des Transferts De Fonds Au Burkina Faso : La Culture Est-Elle Déterminante ?," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 43, pages 187-208.
    10. Bettin, Giulia & Lucchetti, Riccardo & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Endogeneity and sample selection in a model for remittances," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 370-384.
    11. Imene Guetat & Dorsaf Sridi, 2017. "Institutional quality effect on remittances in MENA region," Middle East Development Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 84-100, January.
    12. Zizi GOSCHIN & Monica ROMAN, 2012. "Determinants of the remitting behaviour of Romanian emigrants in an economic crisis context," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 87-103, December.
    13. Aaron Levi Garavito-Acosta & Maria Mercedes Collazos-Gaitan & Manuel Dario Hernandez-Bejarano & Enrique Montes-Uribe, 2019. "Migración internacional y determinantes de las remesas de trabajadores en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 1066, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    14. Sule Akkoyunlu, 2010. "Are Turkish Migrants Altruistic?," KOF Working papers 10-246, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    15. Joseph B. Ajefu & Joseph O. Ogebe, 2021. "The effects of international remittances on expenditure patterns of the left‐behind households in Sub‐Saharan Africa," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 405-429, February.
    16. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frederic, 2006. "The Economics of Migrants' Remittances," Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, in: S. Kolm & Jean Mercier Ythier (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 17, pages 1135-1198, Elsevier.
    17. Bezon Kumar & Md. Elias Hossain & Md. Ataul Gani Osmani, 2018. "Utilization of International Remittances in Bangladesh," Remittances Review, Remittances Review, vol. 3(1), pages 5-18, May.
    18. Shastri, Shruti, 2022. "The impact of infectious diseases on remittances inflows to India," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 83-95.
    19. Matthieu Delpierre & Bertrand Verheyden, 2014. "Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-43, December.
    20. Junaid Ahmed & Mazhar Mughal & Inmaculada Martínez‐Zarzoso, 2021. "Sending money home: Transaction cost and remittances to developing countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(8), pages 2433-2459, August.

    More about this item


    Remittances; migration; microeconomic determinants; Tobit and Heckman's Estimators.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-12-00711. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: John P. Conley (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.