Employment, Development and Research Expenditure in European Union: analysis of causality and comparison with the United States, 1993-2003
We analyse causality between real values of expenditure on Research and Development, RD, and Gross Domestic Product, Gdp, in 15 countries of European Union and the United States for 1993-2003, by means of Granger´s test and an interdependent dynamic model. The lower averages of RD expenditure per inhabitant of many European countries, in comparison with the US, play an important role to explain lower levels of real Gdp per inhabitant and lower rates of Employment. The main conclusion points to the convenience of fostering support to research in several European countries in all fields, both technological and non-technological, in order to get a higher degree of convergence to the levels of income per inhabitant and rates of employment of the USA.
Volume (Year): 2 (2005)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Fagerberg, Jan, 1987.
"A technology gap approach to why growth rates differ,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(2-4), pages 87-99, August.
- Jan Fagerberg, 1987. "A technology gap approach to why growth rates differ," Working Papers Archives 1987002, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Guisan, M.Carmen, 2001. "Causality and Cointegration between Consumption and GDP in 25 OECD countries: limitations of cointegration approach," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 1(1), pages 39-61.
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