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Quantifizierung der sozialen Grenzkosten des Straßenverkehrs: welches sind die wichtigsten Komponenten?

Listed author(s):
  • Chris Nash
  • Jeremy Shires
  • Heike Link

The current concern with sustainability rightly requires those involved with transport to consider carefully the sustainability of the transport sector, and in particular its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is important to remember that greenhouse gases are just one of the costs of transport systems, and it makes no sense therefore to take decisions about transport systems based on the impact on greenhouse gas emissions alone. Against this background, the paper discusses the state of research in estimating marginal external costs of road transport and presents the results of two case studies. These suggest that under peak traffic conditions congestion costs are by far the most important externalities of road use. Accidents, wear and tear and noise costs all appear to be more important than global warming. These results stress that reducing global warming costs, important though they are, should not be the sole priority of transport decisions. Our results suggest that other costs are also very important and need to be taken into account in pricing and investment decisions. Die Diskussion um eine nachhaltige Entwicklung stellt auch die Verantwortlichen im Verkehrssektor vor die Aufgabe, Nachhaltigkeitsaspekte, insbesondere den Beitrag des Verkehrs zum Ausstoß von Klimagasen, bei ihren Entscheidungen zu berücksichtigen. Die Spezifik des Verkehrssektors besteht jedoch darin, dass die Kosten des Klimawandels nur einen Teil der durch den Verkehr verursachten externen Kosten ausmachen. Deshalb können Entscheidungen zur Gestaltung der Verkehrssysteme nicht allein im Rahmen von klimapolitischen Strategien getroffen werden. Davon ausgehend diskutiert dieser Beitrag den Stand der Forschung zur Quantifizierung der sozialen Grenzkosten des Verkehrs und stellt die Ergebnisse zweier Fallstudien vor. Diese zeigen, dass insbesondere in den Spitzenzeiten die Staugrenzkosten die quantitativ dominante Kategorie der externen Kosten des Straßenverkehrs werden, und dass auch die durch Unfälle, Infrastrukturabnutzung und Lärm verursachten Grenzkosten quantitativ bedeutsamer als die mit Klimaveränderungen einhergehenden Grenzkosten sind. Dies verdeutlicht, dass Maßnahmen zur Verminderung der Kosten des Klimawandels, so unbestreitbar wichtig sie auch sind, nicht die alleinige Priorität für eine nachhaltige Verkehrspolitik haben sollten. Vielmehr erfordert die Bedeutung der anderen Kostenkategorien wie Stau, Unfälle und Lärm eine adäquate Berücksichtigung in preis- und investitionspolitischen Entscheidungen der Verkehrspolitik.

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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

Volume (Year): 79 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 13-38

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:79-2-2
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References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Link, Heike, 2006. "An econometric analysis of motorway renewal costs in Germany," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 19-34, January.
  2. Pantelis Capros & Leonidas Mantzos, 2000. "Kyoto and technology at the European Union: costs of emission reduction under flexibility mechanisms and technology progress," International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(1/2/3/4), pages 169-183.
  3. Link, Heike & Nilsson, Jan-Eric, 2005. "Infrastructure," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 49-83, January.
  4. Newbery, David M & Georgina Santos, 2002. "Estimating Urban Road Congestion Costs," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 147, Royal Economic Society.
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