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La productividad del sector manufacturero colombiano y el impacto de la política comercial: 1977-2001

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  • Meléndez Marcela

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  • Katja Seim

    ()

Abstract

Este trabajo analiza los efectos de las reformas a la política comercial de la década de 1990 sobre la productividad del sector manufacturero colombiano. Los resultados indican que entre 1978 y 1998, la productividad agregada del sector manufacturero se estancó, e incluso decreció en algunas de las industrias muy grandes. Sin embargo, la recesión de 1999 aparece como un choque positivo. Entre 1999 y 2001, la productividad mostró un crecimiento significativo. Durante el período observado hay una baja tasa de entrada y salida de firmas, y poca relocalización de trabajo entre sectores. El estancamiento de la productividad puede explicarse por la permanencia en actividad de plantas improductivas, combinada con un lento desarrollo tecnológico. La dinámica de la productividad varía significativamente entre sectores, y los resultados obtenidos indican que esta variación puede atribuirse a la relocalización de trabajo al interior de cada sector. Las políticas industriales tienen gran importancia. La caída en la productividad de sectores particulares coincide con altas tasas de aranceles, mientras que la exposición de ciertos sectores a mercados internacionales está correlacionada con aumentos en la productividad.

Suggested Citation

  • Meléndez Marcela & Katja Seim, 2006. "La productividad del sector manufacturero colombiano y el impacto de la política comercial: 1977-2001," REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000090:003062
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    File URL: http://economia.uniandes.edu.co/revistadys/Articulo57_8.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Camila Casas & Alejandra González, 2016. "Productivity Measures for the Colombian Manufacturing Industry," Borradores de Economia 947, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    productividad; industria manufacturera; políticas comerciales; apertura;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General

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