R&D offshoring and clustering dynamics in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology: key features and insights from the Chinese case
This paper focuses on the clustering dynamics based on/supported by R&D offshoring trends as exemplified by the biopharmaceutical sector in China. It suggests two baselines of the institutional arrangements appropriate to initiate innovation-based clusters: (1) emphasis on the linkages and expansion in global innovation networking, and (2) focus on breeding regional innovation networks and enterprise?s embeddedness. Above, especially in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, these two-dimension baselines are closely intertwined and develop by means of R&D offshoring and clustering dynamics, as it is demonstrated by the case-study of interaction and co-evolution between Chinese and multinational pharmaceutical companies (MPCs). JEL Codes: F23, L24, L65, O32
Volume (Year): n° 4 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
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