IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Replication and Returns to Scale in Production


  • Jensen Christian

    () (Department of Economics, University of South Carolina, 1705 College Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA)


Replication alone does not yield a smooth constant-returns-to-scale production function as those usually assumed in the literature. However, such a function arises endogenously with replication, driven by profit-maximization, if the efficiency of the underlying production process varies with the intensity it is operated at, and reaches a maximum at a stationary point. The result applies when the number of production processes must be discrete, thus overcoming the so-called integer problem. When inputs are non-rival, public goods or generated by externalities, replication can lead to increasing or decreasing returns to scale.

Suggested Citation

  • Jensen Christian, 2014. "Replication and Returns to Scale in Production," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(1), pages 1-22, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejtec:v:14:y:2014:i:1:p:22:n:5

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: For access to full text, subscription to the journal or payment for the individual article is required.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Growth: With or Without Scale Effects?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 139-144, May.
    3. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    4. Herbert Scarf, 1994. "The Allocation of Resources in the Presence of Indivisibilities," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 111-128, Fall.
    5. Kenneth J. Arrow, 1962. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 155-173.
    6. Scarf, Herbert E, 1981. "Production Sets with Indivisibilities-Part I: Generalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(1), pages 1-32, January.
    7. Hernando Zuleta, 2008. "Factor Saving Innovations and Factor Income Shares," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(4), pages 836-851, October.
    8. Jensen, Christian, 2013. "An Endogenously Derived AK-model of Economic Growth," MPRA Paper 44487, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Scarf, Herbert E, 1981. "Production Sets with Indivisibilities-Part II: The Case of Two Activities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(2), pages 395-423, March.
    10. Paul M. Romer, 1994. "The Origins of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 3-22, Winter.
    11. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:bejtec:v:14:y:2014:i:1:p:22:n:5. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.