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Sourcing Premia with Incomplete Contracts: Theory and Evidence

Author

Listed:
  • Kohler Wilhelm K

    () (University of Tübingen)

  • Smolka Marcel

    () (University of Tübingen)

Abstract

Drawing on Grossman & Helpman (2004) and Antràs & Helpman (2004), we identify general conditions that result in an unambiguous mapping of a firm’s productivity level into the organizational form and location of its input sourcing. Using a detailed 2006-2008 data set for Spanish manufacturing firms, we then establish a number of stylized facts about firm-level heterogeneity in sourcing strategies that have largely gone unnoticed in existing literature on input sourcing. Finally, we explore this heterogeneity through econometric estimation of productivity premia associated with different sourcing strategies. We find a robustly significant premium on a strategy that features offshore production of intermediate inputs through a related party (vertical integration). Lower productivity premia are found for strategies that rely on outsourcing to unrelated parties abroad or on vertical integration within the home economy. Across all specifications employed, estimated mean productivity is lowest for domestic-outsourcing firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Kohler Wilhelm K & Smolka Marcel, 2011. "Sourcing Premia with Incomplete Contracts: Theory and Evidence," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-39, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejeap:v:11:y:2011:i:1:n:10
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elhanan Helpman, 2006. "Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 44(3), pages 589-630, September.
    2. Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan & Szeidl, Adam, 2006. "Optimal integration strategies for the multinational firm," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 216-238, September.
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    5. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2005. "Ownership and Control in Outsourcing to China: Estimating the Property-Rights Theory of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 729-761.
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    7. De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
    8. Fabrice Defever & Farid Toubal, 2007. "Productivity and the Sourcing Modes of Multinational Firms: Evidence from French Firm-Level Data," CEP Discussion Papers dp0842, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    9. Stefano Federico, 2010. "Outsourcing versus integration at home or abroad and firm heterogeneity," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 47-63, February.
    10. Du, Julan & Lu, Yi & Tao, Zhigang, 2009. "Bi-sourcing in the global economy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 215-222, April.
    11. Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
    12. Barbara Spencer, 2005. "International outsourcing and incomplete contracts," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1107-1135, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Debaere, Peter & Lee, Hongshik & Lee, Joonhyung, 2013. "Language, ethnicity and intrafirm trade," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 244-253.
    2. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2012. "The Empirics of Firm Heterogeneity and International Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 283-313, July.
    3. repec:spr:manint:v:57:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-017-0322-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Peter Neary & Monika Mrazova, 2011. "Selection Effects with Heterogeneous Firms," Economics Series Working Papers 588, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    5. Teresa C. Fort, 2017. "Technology and Production Fragmentation: Domestic versus Foreign Sourcing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(2), pages 650-687.
    6. Anders Rosenstand Laugesen, 2015. "Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting," Economics Working Papers 2015-24, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    7. Kohler, Wilhelm & Smolka, Marcel, 2014. "Global sourcing and firm selection," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 411-415.
    8. Valeria Gattai & Valentina Trovato, 2014. "Estimating sourcing premia with Italian regional data," Working Papers 276, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jun 2014.
    9. Hongshik Lee & Joonhyung Lee, 2015. "The impact of offshoring on temporary workers: evidence on wages from South Korea," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(3), pages 555-587, August.
    10. Valeria Gattai & Giorgia Sali, 2016. "FDI and heterogeneous performance of European enterprises," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(1), pages 25-65, March.
    11. Angels Pelegrín & José García-Quevedo, 2012. "Which firms are involved in foreign vertical integration?," Working Papers 2012/38, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    12. Smolka, Marcel & Kohler, Wilhelm, 2015. "Global Sourcing of Heterogeneous Firms: Theory and Evidence," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113012, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. Schwörer, Tillmann, 2012. "Offshoring, domestic outsourcing, and productivity: Evidence for a number of European countries," Kiel Working Papers 1786, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    14. Gattai Valeria & Trovato Valentina, 2016. "Estimating Sourcing Premia Using Italian Regional Data," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 16(2), pages 1029-1067, April.
    15. Kohler, Wilhelm & Smolka, Marcel, 2013. "Global Sourcing: Towards an Empirical Test of the Hold-up Model," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80049, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    16. Peter Arendorf Bache & Anders Laugesen, 2013. "Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration," Economics Working Papers 2013-14, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.

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