Choosing the Joneses: Endogenous Goals and Reference Standards
A growing economic literature stresses the importance of relative comparisons, e.g., for savings and consumption or happiness. In this literature it is usually assumed that reference standards against which people compare themselves are exogenously given. In contrast, findings from social psychology suggest that people play an active role in determining their reference standards. We introduce a social comparison model where people choose their reference standards to serve motives of self-improvement and self-enhancement. The model predicts that reference standards increase in individuals' abilities and that people thus tend to compare themselves to similar others. The results of a questionnaire study confirm the prediction of the model. Copyright The editors of the "Scandinavian Journal of Economics", 2004 .
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 106 (2004)
Issue (Month): 3 (October)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-9442|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/subs.asp?ref=0347-0520|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boskin, Michael J & Sheshinski, Eytan, 1978. "Optimal Redistributive Taxation when Individual Welfare Depends upon Relative Income," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 589-601, November.
- Christopher D. Carroll, 1998.
"Why Do the Rich Save So Much?,"
NBER Working Papers
6549, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stark, Oded & Taylor, J Edward, 1991. "Migration Incentives, Migration Types: The Role of Relative Deprivation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(408), pages 1163-78, September.
- Cooper, B. & Garcia-Penalosa, C., 1998.
"Status Effects and Neganive Utility Growth,"
150, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Markus Knell, 1999.
"Social Comparisons, Inequality, and Growth,"
Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE),
Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 155(4), pages 664-, December.
- Andrew E. Clark and Andrew J. Oswald, .
"Satisfaction and Comparison Income,"
Economics Discussion Papers
419, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Easterlin, Richard A., 1995. "Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 35-47, June.
- George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
- John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1994.
"By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior,"
94-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1994. "By Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," CRSP working papers 412, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1995. "By Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," NBER Working Papers 4995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cochrane, John H. & Campbell, John, 1999. "By Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," Scholarly Articles 3119444, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Robert MacCulloch, 2001.
"What Makes a Revolution?,"
STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers
30, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Robert MacCulloch, 2001. "What makes a revolution?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6649, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- MacCulloch, Robert, 1999. "What makes a revolution?," ZEI Working Papers B 24-1999, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
- John Y. Campbell & John Cochrane, 1999. "Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(2), pages 205-251, April.
- Olof Johansson-Stenman & Fredrik Carlsson & Dinky Daruvala, 2002. "Measuring Future Grandparents" Preferences for Equality and Relative Standing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(479), pages 362-383, April.
- David Neumark & Andrew Postlewaite, 1995.
"Relative Income Concerns and the Rise in Married Women's Employment,"
NBER Working Papers
5044, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neumark, David & Postlewaite, Andrew, 1998. "Relative income concerns and the rise in married women's employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 157-183, October.
- Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:scandj:v:106:y:2004:i:3:p:417-435. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.