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Robust Poverty and Inequality Measurement in Egypt: Correcting for Spatial‐price Variation and Sample Design Effects

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  • Dean Jolliffe
  • Gaurav Datt
  • Manohar Sharma

Abstract

The paper estimates inequality and absolute poverty in Egypt for 1997 with measures that are robust to sample design effects and corrected for spatial variation in price levels. Standard errors for inequality indices are calculated using a bootstrap approach which replicates the sample design. Standard errors for poverty indices are corrected for the design effects resulting from sample stratification and clustering. The authors use data from the Egypt Integrated Household Survey and follow the cost‐of‐basic‐needs methodology to construct region‐specific poverty lines. It is found that 15.7 million people were poor in Egypt in 1997, or 26.5% of the population. The estimates indicate a sharp sectoral difference with rural areas being significantly poorer, but significant differences in poverty were not found between Upper and Lower Egypt. This finding differs substantially from the conventional wisdom that Upper Egypt is poorer than Lower Egypt and results from the correction for spatial‐price variation.

Suggested Citation

  • Dean Jolliffe & Gaurav Datt & Manohar Sharma, 2004. "Robust Poverty and Inequality Measurement in Egypt: Correcting for Spatial‐price Variation and Sample Design Effects," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 557-572, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:rdevec:v:8:y:2004:i:4:p:557-572
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9361.2004.00252.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gaurav Datt & Dean Jolliffe & Manohar Sharma, 2001. "A Profile of Poverty in Egypt," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 13(2), pages 202-237.
    2. Dean Jolliffe & Anastassia Semykina, 2000. "Robust standard errors for the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke class of poverty indices," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(51).
    3. Ravallion, Martin & Bidani, Benu, 1994. "How Robust Is a Poverty Profile?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(1), pages 75-102, January.
    4. Stephen Howes & Jean Olson Lanjouw, 1998. "Does Sample Design Matter For Poverty Rate Comparisons?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(1), pages 99-109, March.
    5. Kakwani, Nanak, 1993. "Statistical Inference in the Measurement of Poverty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 632-639, November.
    6. Dean Jolliffe & Bohdan Krushelnytskyy, 2000. "Bootstrap standard errors for indices of inequality," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(51).
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    Cited by:

    1. Vladimir Hlasny & Paolo Verme, 2018. "Top Incomes and the Measurement of Inequality in Egypt," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 32(2), pages 428-455.
    2. Laudicella, Mauro & Cookson, Richard & Jones, Andrew M. & Rice, Nigel, 2009. "Health care deprivation profiles in the measurement of inequality and inequity: An application to GP fundholding in the English NHS," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1048-1061, December.
    3. Carlos Pestana Barros & Otavio Henrique dos Santos Figueiredo & Peter Fernades Wanke, 2016. "Peasants’ Poverty and Inequality in Angola," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(2), pages 751-761, September.
    4. Jolliffe, Dean, 2006. "The Cost of Living and the Geographic Distribution of Poverty," Economic Research Report 7254, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    5. Chen,Xiaomeng & Mungai,Rose & Nakamura,Shohei & Pearson,Thomas Patrick & Wambile,Ayago Esmubancha & Yoshida,Nobuo, 2020. "How Useful is CPI Price Data for Spatial Price Adjustment in Poverty Measurement? : A Case from Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9388, The World Bank.
    6. World Bank Group, 2015. "A Measured Approach to Ending Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity : Concepts, Data, and the Twin Goals," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 20384, December.
    7. Jolliffe,Dean Mitchell & Serajuddin,Umar & Jolliffe,Dean Mitchell & Serajuddin,Umar, 2015. "Estimating poverty with panel data, comparably : an example from Jordan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7373, The World Bank.
    8. Tim Goedemé, 2013. "How much Confidence can we have in EU-SILC? Complex Sample Designs and the Standard Error of the Europe 2020 Poverty Indicators," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 110(1), pages 89-110, January.
    9. Riccardo Massari & M. Grazia Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2010. "Does regional cost-of-living reshuffle Italian income distribution?," Working Papers 166, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    10. Lorena Zardo Trindade & Tim Goedemé, 2016. "Notes on updating the EU-SILC UDB sample design variables 2012-2014," Working Papers 1602, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.

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