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Dividend Taxes and Implied Cost of Equity Capital




We estimate firm-level implied cost of equity capital based on recent advances in accounting and finance research and examine the effect of dividend taxes on the cost of equity capital. We investigate whether dividend taxes affect firms' cost of capital by testing the relation between the implied cost of equity capital and a measure of the tax-penalized portion of dividend yield, which we define as the product of dividend yield and the dividend tax penalty. The results generally support the dividend tax capitalization hypothesis. We find a positive relation between the implied cost of equity capital and the tax-penalized portion of dividend yield that is decreasing in aggregate institutional ownership, our proxy for tax-advantaged investors. The evidence in this study adds to the understanding of the effect of investor-level taxes on equity value. Copyright 2005 The Institute of Professional Accounting, University of Chicago.

Suggested Citation

  • Dan Dhaliwal & Linda Krull & Oliver Zhen Li & William Moser, 2005. "Dividend Taxes and Implied Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(5), pages 675-708, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:joares:v:43:y:2005:i:5:p:675-708

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    Cited by:

    1. Wu, Jin (Ginger) & Zhang, Lu, 2010. "Does Risk Explain Anomalies? Evidence from Expected Return Estimates," Working Paper Series 2010-18, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    2. Kryzanowski, Lawrence & Rahman, Abdul H., 2009. "Degrees-of-freedom problem and implied cost of equity capital," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 171-178, September.
    3. Cahan, Steven F. & Chen, Chen & Chen, Li & Nguyen, Nhut H., 2015. "Corporate social responsibility and media coverage," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 409-422.
    4. Al-Hadi, Ahmed & Taylor, Grantley & Hossain, Mahmud, 2015. "Disaggregation, auditor conservatism and implied cost of equity capital: An international evidence from the GCC," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 66-98.
    5. repec:kap:rqfnac:v:50:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11156-017-0644-y is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Norio Kitagawa & Hyonok Kim & Masatoshi Goto, 2011. "The effect of non-financial risk information on the evaluation of implied cost of capitals," Discussion Papers 2011-07, Kobe University, Graduate School of Business Administration, revised Feb 2011.
    7. Dean Hanlon & Sean Pinder, 2013. "Capital gains tax, supply-driven trading and ownership structure: direct evidence of the lock-in effect," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 53(2), pages 419-439, June.
    8. Chongyang Chen & Zhonglan Dai & Douglas Shackelford & Harold Zhang, 2011. "Does Financial Constraint Affect Shareholder Taxes and the Cost of Equity Capital?," NBER Working Papers 17169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedhami & Yang Ni & Jeffrey Pittman & Samir Saadi, 2012. "Does Religion Matter to Equity Pricing?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 111(4), pages 491-518, December.
    10. Sung Hwan Jung, 2016. "Audit Effort and Market-perceived Risk: Evidence from South Korea," Australian Accounting Review, CPA Australia, vol. 26(3), pages 255-270, September.
    11. Yishuang Xu & Chung Yim Yiu, 2017. "The Impacts of Tax Reforms on REITs. An International Empirical Study," Academic Journal of Economic Studies, Faculty of Finance, Banking and Accountancy Bucharest,"Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University Bucharest, vol. 3(1), pages 11-22, March.
    12. Abdullah Mamun & Dev Mishra, 2012. "Industry Merger Intensity and Cost of Capital," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 469-490, December.
    13. El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Pittman, Jeffrey, 2016. "Cross-country evidence on the importance of Big Four auditors to equity pricing: The mediating role of legal institutions," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 60-81.
    14. Hou, Kewei & van Dijk, Mathijs A. & Zhang, Yinglei, 2012. "The implied cost of capital: A new approach," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 504-526.
    15. repec:eee:pubeco:v:151:y:2017:i:c:p:56-73 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Zhonglan Dai & Edward Maydew & Douglas A. Shackelford & Harold H. Zhang, 2008. "Capital Gains Taxes and Asset Prices: Capitalization or Lock-in?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 709-742, April.
    17. Norio Kitagawa & Masatoshi Gotoh, 2011. "Implied Cost of Capital over the Last 20 Years," The Japanese Accounting Review, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, vol. 1, pages 71-104, December.
    18. Rajan, Madhav & Reichelstein, Stefan J. & Soliman, Mark T., 2006. "Conservatism, Growth, and Return on Investment," Research Papers 1956, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    19. Oliver Zhen Li, 2010. "Tax-Induced Dividend Capturing," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(7-8), pages 866-904.
    20. Dhaliwal, Dan & Krull, Linda & Li, Oliver Zhen, 2007. "Did the 2003 Tax Act reduce the cost of equity capital?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 121-150, March.
    21. repec:spr:reaccs:v:22:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11142-017-9386-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Yangyang Chen & Cameron Truong & Madhu Veeraraghavan, 2015. "CEO Risk-Taking Incentives and the Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(7-8), pages 915-946, September.
    23. Echterling, F. & Eierle, B. & Ketterer, S., 2015. "A review of the literature on methods of computing the implied cost of capital," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 235-252.
    24. Bradley Blaylock & Fabio B. Gaertner & Terry Shevlin, 0. "Book-tax conformity and capital structure," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-30.

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