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Capital Structure as an Optimal Contract between Employees and Investors

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  • Chang, Chun

Abstract

The ex ante optimal contract between investors and employees is derived endogenously and is interpreted in terms of debt, equity, and employees' compensation. Although public equity financing is feasible in this model through verified accounting income, debt is needed to force value-enhancing restructuring before the income realizes. The optimal debt level, however, is lower than that which maximizes the value of the firm when there is nonmonetary restructuring-related cost to employees. The paper explains how stock prices react to exchange offers, how earnings can be diluted by a decrease in leverage, and why employees' claims are generally senior to those of investors. New testable implications about leverage and compensation levels are derived. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Chang, Chun, 1992. " Capital Structure as an Optimal Contract between Employees and Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1141-1158, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:47:y:1992:i:3:p:1141-58
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Antonczyk, Ron Christian & Salzmann, Astrid Juliane, 2014. "Overconfidence and optimism: The effect of national culture on capital structure," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 132-151.
    2. Jonathan B. Berk & Richard Stanton & Josef Zechner, 2010. "Human Capital, Bankruptcy, and Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(3), pages 891-926, June.
    3. Rebecca Neumann, 2003. "International capital flows under asymmetric information and costly monitoring: implications of debt and equity financing," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(3), pages 674-700, August.
    4. Neumann, Rebecca M., 2006. "The effects of capital controls on international capital flows in the presence of asymmetric information," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1010-1027, October.
    5. Gary Gorton & Frank Schmid, 2000. "Class Struggle Inside the Firm: A Study of German Codetermination," NBER Working Papers 7945, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Xiaozu Wang & Tian Zhu, 2004. "Specific Human Capital, Credible Commitment and Optimal Capital Structure," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 5(1), pages 47-59, May.
    7. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    8. Becht, Marco & Bolton, Patrick & Roell, Ailsa, 2003. "Corporate governance and control," Handbook of the Economics of Finance,in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 1-109 Elsevier.
    9. Langberg, Nisan, 2008. "Optimal financing for growth firms," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 379-406, July.
    10. Wolfgang Drobetz & Pascal Pensa & Claudia B. Wöhle, 2004. "Kapitalstrukturtheorie in Theorie und Praxis: Ergebnisse einer Fragebogenuntersuchung," Working papers 2004/09, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    11. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & John, Kose & Waisman, Maya, 2010. "The effect of state antitakeover laws on the firm's bondholders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 127-154, April.
    12. Mary Kathryn Campion & Rebecca M. Neumann, 2003. "Compositional Effects of Capital Controls - Theory and Evidence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(7), pages 957-973, July.

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