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Enabling Housing Cooperatives: Policy Lessons from Sweden, India and the United States

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  • SUKUMAR GANAPATI

Abstract

Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives. Copyright (c) 2010 The Author. Journal Compilation (c) 2010 Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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  • Sukumar Ganapati, 2010. "Enabling Housing Cooperatives: Policy Lessons from Sweden, India and the United States," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 365-380, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ijurrs:v:34:y:2010:i:2:p:365-380
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    1. V Chouinard, 1990. "The uneven development of capitalist states: 2. The struggle for cooperative housing," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(11), pages 1441-1454, November.
    2. Hansmann, Henry, 1991. "Condominium and Cooperative Housing: Transactional Efficiency, Tax Subsidies, and Tenure Choice," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 25-71, January.
    3. V Chouinard, 1990. "The Uneven Development of Capitalist States: 1. Theoretical Proposals and an Analysis of Postwar Changes in Canada's Assisted Housing Programmes," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 22(10), pages 1291-1308, October.
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    6. Goodman, Allen C & Goodman, John L, Jr, 1997. "The Co-op Discount," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 223-233, Jan.-Marc.
    7. Adam Millard-Ball, 2000. "Moving Beyond the Gentrification Gaps: Social Change, Tenure Change and Gap Theories in Stockholm," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 37(9), pages 1673-1693, August.
    8. Michael H. Schill & Ioan Voicu & Jonathan Miller, 2007. "The Condominium versus Cooperative Puzzle: An Empirical Analysis of Housing in New York City," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(2), pages 275-324, June.
    9. V Chouinard, 1990. "The uneven development of capitalist states: 1. Theoretical proposals and an analysis of postwar changes in Canada's assisted housing programmes," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(10), pages 1291-1308, October.
    10. V Chouinard, 1990. "The Uneven Development of Capitalist States: 2. The Struggle for Cooperative Housing," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 22(11), pages 1441-1454, November.
    11. Bengt Turner & Christine M. E. Whitehead, 2002. "Reducing Housing Subsidy: Swedish Housing Policy in an International Context," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(2), pages 201-217, February.
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