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Does Operational and Financial Hedging Reduce Exposure? Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry


  • Stephen D. Treanor
  • Betty J. Simkins
  • Daniel A. Rogers
  • David A. Carter


We examine the effects of both financial and operational hedging on jet fuel exposure in the U.S. airline industry. Specifically, we investigate two operational hedging strategies: the extent to which airlines operate different aircraft types and the degree to which airlines operate fuel-efficient fleets. We find that both financial and operational hedging are important tools in reducing airline exposure to jet fuel price risk. However, operational hedging strategies appear to be more economically important, which suggests that hedging with derivatives is more likely to be used to “fine-tune” risk exposure, whereas operational choices have a higher order effect on risk exposure.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen D. Treanor & Betty J. Simkins & Daniel A. Rogers & David A. Carter, 2014. "Does Operational and Financial Hedging Reduce Exposure? Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 149-172, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:finrev:v:49:y:2014:i:1:p:149-172

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    Cited by:

    1. Roncoroni, Andrea & Id Brik, Rachid, 2017. "Hedging size risk: Theory and application to the US gas market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 415-437.
    2. Merkert, Rico & Swidan, Hassan, 2019. "Flying with(out) a safety net: Financial hedging in the airline industry," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 206-219.
    3. Gavin Cassar & Joseph Gerakos, 2017. "Do risk management practices work? Evidence from hedge funds," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 1084-1121, September.
    4. Swidan, Hassan & Merkert, Rico, 2019. "The relative effect of operational hedging on airline operating costs," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 70-77.
    5. Michael T. Chng & Victor Fang & Vincent Xiang & Hong Feng Zhang, 2017. "Corporate Hedging and the High Idiosyncratic Volatility Low Return Puzzle," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 395-425, September.
    6. Shao, Lili & Shao, Jun & Sun, Zheng & Xu, Huaxin, 2019. "Hedging, speculation, and risk management effect of commodity futures: Evidence from firm voluntary disclosures," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    7. Turner, Peter A. & Lim, Siew Hoon, 2015. "Hedging jet fuel price risk: The case of U.S. passenger airlines," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 44, pages 54-64.
    8. Carter, David A. & Rogers, Daniel A. & Simkins, Betty J. & Treanor, Stephen D., 2017. "A review of the literature on commodity risk management," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(C), pages 1-17.
    9. Gayle, Philip & Lin, Ying, 2020. "Cost Pass-through in Commercial Aviation: Theory and Evidence," MPRA Paper 102018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Hu, Rong & Xiao, Yi-bin & Jiang, Changmin, 2018. "Jet fuel hedging, operational fuel efficiency improvement and carbon tax," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 103-123.
    11. Wang, Huabing & Gao, Xiang, 2020. "Oil price dynamics and airline earnings predictability," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).

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