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The Emergence of Corporate Governance from Wall St. to Main St.: Outside Directors, Board Diversity, Earnings Management, and Managerial Incentives to Bear Risk


  • M. Andrew Fields
  • Phyllis Y. Keys


Recent corporate events have brought a heightened public awareness to corporate governance issues. Much work has been accomplished to date, but it is clear that much more remains to be done. This paper provides a review of empirical research in four relevant areas of corporate governance. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of (a) the role that outside directors play in monitoring managers, (b) the emerging literature on the impact of board diversity, (c) the existence of and incentives for corporate executives to manage firm earnings, and (d) managerial incentives to bear risk. Copyright 2003 Eastern Finance Association.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Andrew Fields & Phyllis Y. Keys, 2003. "The Emergence of Corporate Governance from Wall St. to Main St.: Outside Directors, Board Diversity, Earnings Management, and Managerial Incentives to Bear Risk," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 1-24, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:finrev:v:38:y:2003:i:1:p:1-24

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    1. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters,in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    4. Karels, Gordon V. & McClatchey, Christine A., 1999. "Deposit insurance and risk-taking behavior in the credit union industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 105-134, January.
    5. Fried, Harold O. & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Eeckaut, Philippe Vanden, 1993. "Evaluating the performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 251-265, April.
    6. Aruna Srinivasan & B. Frank King, 1998. "Credit union issues," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 3, pages 32-41.
    7. Keith Leggett & Yvonne Stewart, 1999. "Multiple common bond credit unions and the allocation of benefits," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 23(3), pages 235-245, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Bradley & Dong Chen, 2015. "Does Board Independence Reduce the Cost of Debt?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 44(1), pages 15-47, March.
    2. Bird, Robert C. & Borochin, Paul A. & Knopf, John D., 2015. "The role of the chief legal officer in corporate governance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 1-22.
    3. repec:eee:spacre:v:18:y:2015:i:1:p:20-31 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Duchin, Ran & Matsusaka, John G. & Ozbas, Oguzhan, 2010. "When are outside directors effective?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 195-214, May.
    5. Celia Anca & Patricia Gabaldon, 2014. "The Media Impact of Board Member Appointments in Spanish-Listed Companies: A Gender Perspective," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 122(3), pages 425-438, July.
    6. Lauren Cohen & Andrea Frazzini & Christopher J. Malloy, 2012. "Hiring Cheerleaders: Board Appointments of "Independent" Directors," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(6), pages 1039-1058, June.
    7. Muhammad Imran Nazir & Muhammad Zulfiqar & Muhammad Bilal Saeed & Yasir Habib, 2016. "The Influence of Board Characteristics on Shareholders Assessment of Risk for Small and Large Firms: Evidence from Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(2), pages 596-606.
    8. repec:hur:ijaraf:v:7:y:2017:i:4:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Mehmoona Sharif & Kashif Rashid, 2014. "Corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting: an empirical evidence from commercial banks (CB) of Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(5), pages 2501-2521, September.
    10. Wincent, Joakim & Thorgren, Sara & Anokhin, Sergey, 2014. "Entrepreneurial orientation and network board diversity in network organizations," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 327-344.
    11. Adams, Renée B. & Ferreira, Daniel, 2009. "Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 291-309, November.
    12. Dauth, Tobias & Pronobis, Paul & Schmid, Stefan, 2017. "Exploring the link between internationalization of top management and accounting quality: The CFO’s international experience matters," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 71-88.
    13. Kokoreva, Maria S. & Stepanova, Anastasia N. & Karnoukhova, Elena V., 2016. "What We Do not Know about the Ownership Structure of the Largest U.S. Companies?," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 6, pages 36-59, December.
    14. Afzalur Rashid, 2015. "Revisiting Agency Theory: Evidence of Board Independence and Agency Cost from Bangladesh," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 181-198, August.
    15. Bjuggren, Per-Olof & Nordström, Louise & Palmberg, Johanna, 2015. "Efficiency of Female Leaders in Family and Non-Family Firms," Ratio Working Papers 259, The Ratio Institute.

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