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ITQs and Community: An Essay on Environmental Governance


  • McCay, Bonnie J.


Two important new directions in resource and environmental management are increased reliance on market mechanisms on the one hand, and on greater participation by local communities on the other. In fisheries, market-based management is found mainly in the "cap-and-trade" systems known as individual transferable quotas (ITQs). ITQs are effective in achieving certain economic goals but often with undesirable social costs, leading to the view that they are antithetical to community-based management. However, ITQ systems have been adapted to mitigate community losses. In addition, social resistance to ITQs has encouraged the development of innovative programs in community-based fisheries management.

Suggested Citation

  • McCay, Bonnie J., 2004. "ITQs and Community: An Essay on Environmental Governance," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 33(2), October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:arerjl:31265

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arne Bigsten & Stuart Corbridge & J. Thomas Lindblad & Scott McDonald & Tony Addison & Anthony Payne & Robin Mearns & John Thoburn & Clem Tisdell & Tony Barnett & Mike Shepperdson, 1997. "Book reviews," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(6), pages 874-892.
    2. Anthony Scott, 1955. "The Fishery: The Objectives of Sole Ownership," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63, pages 116-116.
    3. H. Scott Gordon, 1954. "The Economic Theory of a Common-Property Resource: The Fishery," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62, pages 124-124.
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    Cited by:

    1. Carothers, Courtney, 2015. "Fisheries privatization, social transitions, and well-being in Kodiak, Alaska," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 313-322.
    2. Melstrom, Richard T., 2015. "Cyclical harvesting in fisheries with bycatch," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1-15.
    3. Melstrom, Richard T., 2014. "Optimal Management of a Fishery with Bycatch," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 168316, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Foley, Paul & Mather, Charles & Neis, Barbara, 2015. "Governing enclosure for coastal communities: Social embeddedness in a Canadian shrimp fishery," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 390-400.
    5. Clay, Patricia M. & Kitts, Andrew & Pinto da Silva, Patricia, 2014. "Measuring the social and economic performance of catch share programs: Definition of metrics and application to the U.S. Northeast Region groundfish fishery," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 27-36.
    6. Alvear, Santiago A. Bermeo, 2006. "Modelling an ITQ Scheme in the Galapagos Marine Reserve Spiny Lobster Fishery," 2006 Conference, August 24-25, 2006, Nelson, New Zealand 31973, New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.

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