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Are We Consuming Too Much?

Author

Listed:
  • Kenneth Arrow
  • Partha Dasgupta
  • Lawrence Goulder
  • Gretchen Daily
  • Paul Ehrlich
  • Geoffrey Heal
  • Simon Levin
  • Karl-Göran Mäler
  • Stephen Schneider
  • David Starrett
  • Brian Walker

Abstract

This paper articulates and applies frameworks for examining whether consumption is excessive. We consider two criteria for the possible excessiveness (or insufficiency) of current consumption. One is an intertemporal utility-maximization criterion: actual current consumption is deemed excessive if it is higher than the level of current consumption on the consumption path that maximizes the present discounted value of utility. The other is a sustainability criterion, which requires that current consumption be consistent with non-declining living standards over time. We extend previous theoretical approaches by offering a formula for the sustainability criterion that accounts for population growth and technological change. In applying this formula, we find that some poor regions of the world are failing to meet the sustainability criterion: in these regions, genuine wealth per capita is falling as investments in human and manufactured capital are not sufficient to offset the depletion of natural capital.

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth Arrow & Partha Dasgupta & Lawrence Goulder & Gretchen Daily & Paul Ehrlich & Geoffrey Heal & Simon Levin & Karl-Göran Mäler & Stephen Schneider & David Starrett & Brian Walker, 2004. "Are We Consuming Too Much?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 147-172, Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:18:y:2004:i:3:p:147-172
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/0895330042162377
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    References listed on IDEAS

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