The Value of Autonomy: Evidence from the Self-Employed in 23 Countries
AbstractThe self-employed are substantially more satisfied with their work than employed persons. We document this relationship for 23 countries and show that the higher job satisfaction can directly be attributed to the greater autonomy that self-employed persons enjoy. "Being your own boss" seems to provide non-pecuniary benefits from work that point to the existence of procedural utility: autonomy is valued beyond outcomes as a good decision-making procedure. The results hold not only for Western European, North American and former communist Eastern European countries, but largely also for countries with a non-western cultural background.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich in its series IEW - Working Papers with number 173.
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self-employment; autonomy; job satisfaction; procedural utility;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D00 - Microeconomics - - General - - - General
- M54 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Personnel Economics - - - Labor Management
- J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
- J81 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Working Conditions
- L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure
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