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War and women's work : evidence from the conflict in Nepal

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  • Menon, Nidhiya
  • Rodgers, Yana van der Meulen

Abstract

This paper examines how Nepal's 1996-2006 civil conflict affected women's decisions to engage in employment. Using three waves of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, the authors employ a difference-in-difference approach to identify the impact of war on women's employment decisions. The results indicate that as a result of the Maoist-led insurgency, women's employment probabilities were substantially higher in 2001 and 2006 relative to the outbreak of war in 1996. These employment results also hold for self-employment decisions, and they hold for smaller sub-samples that condition on husband's migration status and women's status as widows or household heads. Numerous robustness checks of the difference-in-difference estimates based on alternative empirical methods provide compelling evidence that women's likelihood of employment increased as a consequence of the conflict.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5745.

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Date of creation: 01 Aug 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5745

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Keywords: Population Policies; Rural Poverty Reduction; Labor Markets; Regional Economic Development; Gender and Law;

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References

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  1. Finegan, T. Aldrich & Margo, Robert A., 1994. "Work Relief and the Labor Force Participation of Married Women in 1940," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 54(01), pages 64-84, March.
  2. Ghani, Ejaz & Iyer, Lakshmi, 2010. "Conflict and Development—Lessons from South Asia," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 31, pages 1-8, September.
  3. Angrist, Joshua & Kugler, Adriana D., 2005. "Rural Windfall or a New Resource Curse? Coca, Income and Civil Conflict in Colombia," CEPR Discussion Papers 5324, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Susan Parker & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2004. "The added worker effect over the business cycle: evidence from urban Mexico," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(10), pages 625-630.
  5. Michael Lokshin & Elena Glinskaya, 2009. "The Effect of Male Migration on Employment Patterns of Women in Nepal," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(3), pages 481-507, November.
  6. Ibáñez, Ana Mari­a & Vélez, Carlos Eduardo, 2008. "Civil Conflict and Forced Migration: The Micro Determinants and Welfare Losses of Displacement in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 659-676, April.
  7. Prieto-Rodriguez, Juan & Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Cesar, 2003. "Participation of married women in the European labor markets and the "added worker effect"," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 429-446, September.
  8. Nidhiya Menon, 2009. "Rainfall Uncertainty and Occupational Choice in Agricultural Households of Rural Nepal," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 864-888.
  9. S. Mansoob Murshed & Scott Gates, 2005. "Spatial-Horizontal Inequality and the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 121-134, 02.
  10. Sonali Deraniyagala, 2005. "The Political Economy of Civil Conflict in Nepal," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 47-62.
  11. Sanjaya Acharya, 2008. "Poverty alleviation and the industrial employment of women (the case of Nepal)," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 670-685.
  12. Dex, Shirley, et al, 1995. "Cross-National Comparisons of the Labour Force Participation of Women Married to Unemployed Men," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 611-35, October.
  13. Quy-Toan Do & Lakshmi Iyer, 2010. "Geography, poverty and conflict in Nepal," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 47(6), pages 735-748, November.
  14. World Bank, 2004. "Social Change in Conflict-Affected Areas of Nepal," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11281, The World Bank.
  15. Sharma, Kishor, 2006. "The political economy of civil war in Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1237-1253, July.
  16. Sonia Bhalotra & Marcela Umaña-Aponte, 2010. "The Dynamics of Women’s Labour Supply in Developing Countries," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 10/235, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  17. Karen Macours, 2011. "Increasing inequality and civil conflict in Nepal," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 1-26, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Shemyakina, Olga N., 2011. "The labor market, education and armed conflict in Tajikistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5738, The World Bank.
  2. Parlow, Anton, 2011. "Education and armed conflict: the Kashmir insurgency in the nineties," MPRA Paper 38010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude & Khamis, Melanie & Yuksel, Mutlu, 2013. "For Better or for Worse: The Long-Term Effects of Postwar Reconstruction on Family Formation," IZA Discussion Papers 7239, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Patricia Justino & Olga Shemyakina, 2010. "Remittances and Labor Supply in Post-Conflict Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers 83, Households in Conflict Network.
  5. Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2012. "Gender and the Economic Impacts of War," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2012-008, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
  6. Valente, Christine, 2011. "What did the Maoists ever do for us ? education and marriage of women exposed to civil conflict in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5741, The World Bank.
  7. Fernandez, Manuel & Ibanez, Ana Maria & Pena, Ximena, 2011. "Adjusting the labor supply to mitigate violent shocks : evidence from rural Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5684, The World Bank.
  8. Patricia Justino & Ivan Cardona & Rebecca Mitchell & Catherine Müller, 2012. "Quantifying the Impact of Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery," HiCN Working Papers 131, Households in Conflict Network.
  9. Valente, Christine, 2013. "Education and civil conflict in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6468, The World Bank.
  10. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude & Khamis, Melanie & Yuksel, Mutlu, 2011. "Rubble Women: The Long-Term Effects of Postwar Reconstruction on Female Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 6148, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Anton Parlow, 2012. "Armed Conflict and Children’s Health – Exploring new directions: The case of Kashmir," HiCN Working Papers 119, Households in Conflict Network.
  12. Olga N. Shemyakina, 2011. "Labour Market, Education and Armed Conflict in Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers 106, Households in Conflict Network.
  13. Marc Rockmore, 2012. "Living Within Conflicts: Risk of Violence and Livelihood Portfolios," HiCN Working Papers 121, Households in Conflict Network.
  14. Maren M. Michaelsen, 2012. "Mental Health and Labour Supply – Evidence from Mexico‘s Ongoing Violent Conflicts," Ruhr Economic Papers 0378, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  15. Parlow, Anton, 2012. "Armed conflict and children's health - exploring new directions: The case of Kashmir," MPRA Paper 38033, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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