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War and Women’s Work: Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal

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  • Nidhiya Menon

    ()
    (Department of Economics & IBS, MS 021, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-9110)

  • Yana van der Meulen Rodgers

    ()
    (Women’s and Gender Studies Department, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901)

Abstract

This paper examines how Nepal’s 1996-2006 civil conflict affected women’s decisions to engage in employment. Using three waves of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we employ a difference-in-difference approach to identify the impact of war on women’s employment decisions. Results indicate that as a result of the Maoist-led insurgency, women’s employment probabilities were substantially higher in 2001 and 2006 relative to the outbreak of war in 1996. These employment results also hold for selfemployment decisions, and they hold for smaller sub-samples that condition on husband’s migration status and women’s status as widows or household heads. Numerous robustness checks of the difference-in-difference estimates based on alternative empirical methods provide compelling evidence that women’s likelihood of employment increased as a consequence of the conflict.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Households in Conflict Network in its series HiCN Working Papers with number 104.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hic:wpaper:104

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  1. Prieto-Rodriguez, Juan & Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Cesar, 2003. "Participation of married women in the European labor markets and the "added worker effect"," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 429-446, September.
  2. Angrist, Joshua & Kugler, Adriana, 2007. "Rural Windfall or a New Resource Curse? Coca, Income, and Civil Conflict in Colombia," IZA Discussion Papers 2790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Finegan, T. Aldrich & Margo, Robert A., 1994. "Work Relief and the Labor Force Participation of Married Women in 1940," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 54(01), pages 64-84, March.
  4. Karen Macours, 2011. "Increasing inequality and civil conflict in Nepal," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 1-26, January.
  5. Nidhiya Menon, 2009. "Rainfall Uncertainty and Occupational Choice in Agricultural Households of Rural Nepal," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 864-888.
  6. Ejaz Ghani & Lakshmi Iyer, 2010. "Conflict and Development : Lessons from South Asia," World Bank Other Operational Studies 10157, The World Bank.
  7. World Bank, 2004. "Social Change in Conflict-Affected Areas of Nepal," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11281, The World Bank.
  8. Sonali Deraniyagala, 2005. "The Political Economy of Civil Conflict in Nepal," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 47-62.
  9. Sharma, Kishor, 2006. "The political economy of civil war in Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1237-1253, July.
  10. Michael Lokshin & Elena Glinskaya, 2009. "The Effect of Male Migration on Employment Patterns of Women in Nepal," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 23(3), pages 481-507, November.
  11. Ibáñez, Ana Mari­a & Vélez, Carlos Eduardo, 2008. "Civil Conflict and Forced Migration: The Micro Determinants and Welfare Losses of Displacement in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 659-676, April.
  12. S. Mansoob Murshed & Scott Gates, 2005. "Spatial-Horizontal Inequality and the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(1), pages 121-134, 02.
  13. Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Umana-Aponte, Marcela, 2010. "The Dynamics of Women's Labour Supply in Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 4879, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Sanjaya Acharya, 2008. "Poverty alleviation and the industrial employment of women (the case of Nepal)," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 670-685.
  15. Susan Parker & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2004. "The added worker effect over the business cycle: evidence from urban Mexico," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(10), pages 625-630.
  16. Dex, Shirley, et al, 1995. "Cross-National Comparisons of the Labour Force Participation of Women Married to Unemployed Men," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 611-35, October.
  17. Quy-Toan Do & Lakshmi Iyer, 2010. "Geography, poverty and conflict in Nepal," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 47(6), pages 735-748, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ana María Ibáñez L. & Manuel Fernández & Ximena Peña, 2011. "Adjusting the Labor Supply to Mitigate Violent Shocks: Evidence from Rural Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE 009246, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  2. Patricia Justino & Olga Shemyakina, 2010. "Remittances and Labor Supply in Post-Conflict Tajikistan," Research Working Papers, MICROCON - A Micro Level Analysis of Violent Conflict 35, MICROCON - A Micro Level Analysis of Violent Conflict.
  3. Marc Rockmore, 2012. "Living Within Conflicts: Risk of Violence and Livelihood Portfolios," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 121, Households in Conflict Network.
  4. Maren M. Michaelsen, 2012. "Mental Health and Labour Supply – Evidence from Mexico‘s Ongoing Violent Conflicts," Ruhr Economic Papers, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen 0378, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  5. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude & Khamis, Melanie & Yuksel, Mutlu, 2013. "For Better or for Worse: The Long-Term Effects of Postwar Reconstruction on Family Formation," IZA Discussion Papers 7239, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Valente, Christine, 2011. "What did the Maoists ever do for us ? education and marriage of women exposed to civil conflict in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 5741, The World Bank.
  7. Shemyakina, Olga N., 2011. "The labor market, education and armed conflict in Tajikistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 5738, The World Bank.
  8. Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2012. "Gender and the Economic Impacts of War," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics 2012-008, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
  9. Anton Parlow, 2012. "Armed Conflict and Children’s Health – Exploring new directions: The case of Kashmir," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 119, Households in Conflict Network.
  10. Parlow, Anton, 2011. "Education and armed conflict: the Kashmir insurgency in the nineties," MPRA Paper 38010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Parlow, Anton, 2012. "Armed conflict and children's health - exploring new directions: The case of Kashmir," MPRA Paper 38033, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Patricia Justino & Ivan Cardona & Rebecca Mitchell & Catherine Müller, 2012. "Quantifying the Impact of Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 131, Households in Conflict Network.
  13. Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude & Khamis, Melanie & Yuksel, Mutlu, 2011. "Rubble Women: The Long-Term Effects of Postwar Reconstruction on Female Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 6148, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Olga N. Shemyakina, 2011. "Labour Market, Education and Armed Conflict in Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers, Households in Conflict Network 106, Households in Conflict Network.
  15. Valente, Christine, 2013. "Education and civil conflict in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 6468, The World Bank.

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