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Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis

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Abstract

This paper examines the very long-run relationship between income and emissions of enteric methane in New Zealand, over the period 1895 to 1996. Controlling the emissions of this particular greenhouse gas is of crucial importance if that country is to meet its obligations as a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. We use standard parametric regression, nonparametric regression, and a new nonlinear regression estimator based on fuzzy clustering analysis, to estimate 'environmental Kuznets' curves' for methane in New Zealand. Our results appear to be the first to support the existence of some form of 'inverted-U' curve for this pollutant, and the 'double-hump' relationship that emerges from our fuzzy modeling is consistent with certain theoretical results. Methane pollution is maximized at a level of real per capita GDP that is consistent with those reported for other pollutants in the literature.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Victoria in its series Econometrics Working Papers with number 0306.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 06 Jun 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:vic:vicewp:0306

Note: ISSN 1485-6441
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Keywords: cointegration; error correction model; lag length selection; sequential testing; testing for Granger noncausality; Monte Carlo simulation;

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  1. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
  2. Egli, Hannes, 2001. "Are cross-country studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve misleading? New evidence from time series data for Germany," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere 10/2001, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Faculty of Law and Economics.
  3. James Andreoni & Arik Levinson, 1998. "The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," NBER Working Papers 6739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. David E. A. Giles & Robert Draeseke, 2001. "Econometric Modelling based on Pattern recognition via the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Algorithm," Econometrics Working Papers 0101, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  5. David E.A. Giles & Hui Feng, 2003. "Testing For Convergence in Output and in 'Well-Being' in Industrialized Countries," Econometrics Working Papers 0302, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  6. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1994. "Economic Growth and the Environment," NBER Working Papers 4634, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Roger Perman & David I. Stern, 1999. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Implications of Non-Stationarity," Working Papers in Ecological Economics 9901, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
  8. Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-73, Supplemen.
  9. Elbert Dijkgraaf & Herman Vollebergh, 2004. "A Note on Testing for Environmental Kuznets Curves with Panel Data," Others 0409001, EconWPA.
  10. David E. A. Giles, 2006. "Spurious Regressions With Time-Series data: Further Asymptotic Results," Econometrics Working Papers 0603, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  11. de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Hannes Egli & Thomas Steger, 2007. "A Dynamic Model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Turning Point and Public Policy," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 15-34, January.
  2. Gang Liu & Terje Skjerpen & Kjetil Telle, 2009. "Unit roots, polynomial transformations and the environmental Kuznets curve," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 285-288.
  3. David E. A. Giles & Chad Stroomer, 2003. "Does Trade Openness Affect the Speed of Output Convergence? Some Empirical Evidence," Econometrics Working Papers 0307, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  4. Nilanjana Roy & G. Cornelis van Kooten, 2004. "Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-Point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach," Working Papers 2004-07, University of Victoria, Department of Economics, Resource Economics and Policy Analysis Research Group.
  5. Song, Tao & Zheng, Tingguo & Tong, Lianjun, 2008. "An empirical test of the environmental Kuznets curve in China: A panel cointegration approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 381-392, September.
  6. Fodha, Mouez & Zaghdoud, Oussama, 2010. "Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1150-1156, February.

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