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The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Implications of Non-Stationarity

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  • Roger Perman

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)

  • David I. Stern

    (Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, Australian National University)

Abstract

In this paper, we apply time series techniques for panel data to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model. Within the literature that estimates emissions-income relations in the EKC context, little attention has been paid to the time series properties of the data and in particular to whether the variables could be integrated time series. We estimate the EKC for sulphur emissions using a panel data set for 74 countries over 30 years. Using individual unit root tests, we find that both sulphur emissions and GDP per capita are integrated variables in the majority of countries. This result is confirmed by panel unit root tests that find that the panel series are integrated. Individual cointegration tests show that EKC relations in most countries do not cointegrate. Results of a number of panel cointegration statistics are mixed. Even if there is cointegration in the panel many of the individual EKC functions are U shaped or monotonic in income. There is no single cointegrating vector common to all countries. The results show that the EKC may be a problematic concept, as simple global EKC models are misspecified.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program in its series Working Papers in Ecological Economics with number 9901.

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Date of creation: Jun 1999
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Handle: RePEc:anu:wpieep:9901

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Web page: http://incres.anu.edu.au/EEP/wp.html

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References

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  4. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S., 2001. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 162-178, March.
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  14. Vincent, Jeffrey R., 1997. "Testing for environmental Kuznets curves within a developing country," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 417-431, November.
  15. Panayotou, Theodore, 1997. "Demystifying the environmental Kuznets curve: turning a black box into a policy tool," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 465-484, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho, 2003. "Testing for an environmental Kuznets curve in Latin-American countries," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 18(1), pages 3-26, June.
  2. Sigrid Stagl, 1999. "Delinking Economic Growth from Environmental Degradation? A Literature Survey on the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Working Papers geewp06, Vienna University of Economics Research Group: Growth and Employment in Europe: Sustainability and Competitiveness.
  3. Tom Verbeke & M. De Clercq, 2003. "The income-environment relationship: Does a logit model offer an alternative empirical strategy?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 03/192, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  4. Granda, Catalina & Pérez, Luis Guillermo & Muñoz, Juan Carlos, 2008. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Quality: An Analysis of its Appropriateness Using Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," REVISTA LECTURAS DE ECONOMÍA, UNIVERSIDAD DE ANTIOQUIA - CIE.
  5. Piaggio, Matías & Padilla, Emilio, 2012. "CO2 emissions and economic activity: Heterogeneity across countries and non-stationary series," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 370-381.
  6. David E. A. Giles & Carl Mosk, 2003. "Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis," Econometrics Working Papers 0306, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  7. Marzio Galeotti & Matteo Manera & Alessandro Lanza, 2006. "On the Robustness of Robustness Checks of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," UNIMI - Research Papers in Economics, Business, and Statistics unimi-1027, Universitá degli Studi di Milano.
  8. Marzio Galeotti & Matteo Manera & Alessandro Lanza, 2009. "On the Robustness of Robustness Checks of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(4), pages 551-574, April.
  9. Halkos, George E. & Paizanos, Epameinondas Α., 2013. "The effect of government expenditure on the environment:An empirical investigation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 48-56.
  10. Alberto Ansuategi, 2003. "Economic Growth and Transboundary Pollution in Europe: An Empirical Analysis," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 26(2), pages 305-328, October.
  11. Stern, David I., 2002. "Explaining changes in global sulfur emissions: an econometric decomposition approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 201-220, August.
  12. Galeotti, Marzio & Lanza, Alessandro & Pauli, Francesco, 2006. "Reassessing the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A robustness exercise," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 152-163, April.
  13. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2005. "Are Shocks To Energy Consumption Permanent Or Temporary? Evidence From 182 Countries," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 06/05, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  14. Leitão, Alexandra, 2010. "Corruption and the environmental Kuznets Curve: Empirical evidence for sulfur," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2191-2201, September.
  15. David I. Stern, 1999. "Attributing Changes in Global Sulfur Emissions," Working Papers in Ecological Economics 9902, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.

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