Unit Roots, Polynomial Transformations and the Environmental Kuznets Curve
AbstractTime-series regressions including non-linear transformations of an integrated variable are not uncommon in various fields of economics. In particular, within the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) literature, where the effect on the environment of income levels is investigated, it is standard procedure to include a third order polynomial in the income variable. When the income variable is an I(1)-variable and this variable is also included nonlinearly in the regression relation, the properties of the estimators and standard inferential procedures are unknown. Surprisingly, such problems have received rather limited attention in applied work, and appear disregarded in the EKC literature. We investigate the properties of the estimators of long-run parameters using Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that the mean of the ordinary least squares estimates are very similar to the true values and that standard testing procedures based on normality behave rather well.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Research Department of Statistics Norway in its series Discussion Papers with number 443.
Date of creation: Jan 2006
Date of revision:
Emissions; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Unit Roots; Monte Carlo Simulations;
Other versions of this item:
- Gang Liu & Terje Skjerpen & Kjetil Telle, 2009. "Unit roots, polynomial transformations and the environmental Kuznets curve," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 285-288.
- C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
- C16 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Econometric and Statistical Methods; Specific Distributions
- C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models
- C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models
- O13 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-04-22 (All new papers)
- NEP-ECM-2006-04-22 (Econometrics)
- NEP-ENE-2006-04-22 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2006-04-22 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-ETS-2006-04-22 (Econometric Time Series)
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