Entry into work following childbirth among mothers in Norway. Recent trends and variation
AbstractUniversal parental leaves with job protection and earnings compensation increase women’s attachment to the labour market, but very long leaves may have negative consequences both at the individual and the societal level. Some scholars have therefore argued that generous family-friendly policies in the Nordic countries have been counterproductive in achieving one of the main goals, gender equality. In this paper we ask whether it is possible to offset the potential negative effects on women’s labour supply of long parental leaves by policies targeted especially at the father, and policies making formal day care cheaper and more easily available for parents. Norway is an interesting case in this respect, since all recent extensions in the parental leave scheme have been reserved for fathers and at the same time there has been a vast expansion of the day-care sector combined with reduced parental payment. Using panel data from 1996-2010, we find that Norwegian mothers did indeed enter work faster after childbirth in the late 2000s than about a decade earlier. This suggests that the latest initiatives have contributed to a shortening of women’s employment interruptions and a more equal division of paid and unpaid work among parents.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Research Department of Statistics Norway in its series Discussion Papers with number 702.
Date of creation: Aug 2012
Date of revision:
Female labour supply; childbirth; parental leave; gender equality;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polacheck, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 397-431 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jacob Mincer & Haim Ofek, 1982. "Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24.
- Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Simonsen, Marianne & Verner, Mette, 2002.
"Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?,"
02-19, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, 2004. "Does the Gap in Family-friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(4), pages 721-744, December.
- Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen & Mette Verner, . "Does the Gap in Family-Friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?," Economics Working Papers 2003-1, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
- Randi Kjeldstad & Marit R�nsen, 2004. "Welfare Rules, Business Cycles, And Employment Dynamics Among Lone Parents In Norway," Feminist Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 61-89.
- Chiara Pronzato, 2009.
"Return to work after childbirth: does parental leave matter in Europe?,"
Review of Economics of the Household,
Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 341-360, December.
- Chiara Pronzato, 2008. "Return to work after childbirth: Does parental leave matter in Europe?," Working Papers 014, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1998.
"The Economic Consequences Of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons From Europe,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 113(1), pages 285-317, February.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 1996. "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe," NBER Working Papers 5688, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rieck, Karsten Marshall E. & Telle, Kjetil, 2012. "Sick Leave Before, During and After Pregnancy," Working Papers in Economics 06/12, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Ejrnæs, Mette & Kunze, Astrid, 2012.
"Work and Wage Dynamics around Childbirth,"
Discussion Paper Series in Economics
4/2012, Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics.
- Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars J. Kirkebøen, 2011.
"Causal Effects of Paternity Leave on Children and Parents,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3513, CESifo Group Munich.
- Sara Cools & Jon H. Fiva & Lars Johannessen Kirkebøen, 2011. "Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents," Discussion Papers 657, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
- Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974.
"Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women,"
in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S76-S108, Part II, .
- Nina Drange & Kjetil Telle, 2010. "The effect of preschool on the school performance of children from immigrant families. Results from an introduction of free preschool in two districts in Oslo," Discussion Papers 631, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
- Burgess, Simon & Gregg, Paul & Propper, Carol & Washbrook, Elizabeth, 2008.
"Maternity rights and mothers' return to work,"
Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 168-201, April.
- Jacob Klerman & Arleen Leibowitz, 1999. "Job continuity among new mothers," Demography, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 145-155, May.
- Even, William E, 1987. "Career Interruptions Following Childbirth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 255-77, April.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (J Bruusgaard).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.