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Family leave policies and women's retention after childbirth: Evidence from the United States, Britain, and Japan

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Author Info

  • Yoshio Higuchi

    (Keio University, Department of Business and Commerce, Tokyo, Japan)

  • Jane Waldfogel

    ()
    (Columbia University, School of Social Work, 622 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025, USA)

  • Masahiro Abe

    (Hitotsubashi University, Institute of Economics, Tokyo, Japan)

Abstract

This paper uses labour force survey data to examine the employment rates and employment decisions of women with young children in the United States, Britain and Japan. Our results confirm that young children have a very strong negative effect on women's employment; this effect is most pronounced in Britain. We then take advantage of panel data to investigate the effects of family leave coverage on women's job retention after childbirth. We find that family leave coverage increases the likelihood that a woman will return to her employer after childbirth in all three countries, with a particularly marked effect in Japan. This result suggests that the recent expansions in family leave coverage in the sample countries are likely to lead to increased employment of women after childbirth.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 12 (1999)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 523-545

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:12:y:1999:i:4:p:523-545

Note: Received: 10 July 1997/Accepted: 8 June 1998
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Related research

Keywords: Family leave · maternity leave · women's employment;

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Cited by:
  1. Audra J Bowlus & Louise Grogan, . "Equilibrium Job Search and Gender Wage Differentials in the UK," Canadian International Labour Network Working Papers 48, McMaster University.
  2. Fazeer Rahim, 2014. "Work-family attitudes and career interruptions due to childbirth," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 177-205, March.
  3. Pylkkänen, Elina & Smith, Nina, 2004. "The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies in Denmark and Sweden on Mothers' Career Interruptions Due to Childbirth," IZA Discussion Papers 1050, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Raquel Bernal & Adriana Camacho & Carmen Elisa Flórez & Alejandro Gaviria, 2009. "Desarrollo económico: retos y políticas públicas," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 005269, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  5. Nawata, Kazumitsu & Ii, Masako, 2004. "Estimation of the labor participation and wage equation model of Japanese married women by the simultaneous maximum likelihood method," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-315, September.
  6. Pia S. Schober, 2012. "Parental Leave Policies and Child Care Time in Couples after Childbirth," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 434, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  7. Michael Baker & Kevin Milligan, 2005. "How Does Job-Protected Maternity Leave Affect Mothers' Employment and Infant Health?," NBER Working Papers 11135, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Hashimoto, Masanori & Percy, Rick & Schoellner, Teresa & Weinberg, Bruce A., 2004. "The Long and Short of It: Maternity Leave Coverage and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 1207, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Pia S. Schober, 2011. "Maternal Labor Market Return, Parental Leave Policies, and Gender Inequality in Housework," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 422, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  10. Kazumasa Oguro & Shoichiro Yuyama, 2008. "A Study on Financial Deficit and Declining Birthrate - From the Viewpoint of "Children as a Social Security Revenue Source" -," Public Policy Review, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan, vol. 4(1), pages 53-76, December.
  11. Nezih Guner & Ezgi Kaya & Virginia Sánchez-Marcos, 2014. "Gender gaps in Spain: policies and outcomes over the last three decades," SERIEs, Spanish Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 61-103, March.
  12. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Smith, Nina & Verner, Mette, 2006. "Child Care and Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries: A Model to Aspire to?," IZA Discussion Papers 2014, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts, 2003. "Female labor force intermittency and current earnings: a switching regression model with unknown sample selection," Working Paper 2003-33, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  14. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts & Mary Beth Walker, 2010. "Assessing the impact of education and marriage on labor market exit decisions of women," Working Paper 2010-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  15. Chad Steinberg & Masato Nakane, 2012. "Can Women Save Japan?," IMF Working Papers 12/248, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Heywood, John S. & Siebert, W. Stanley & Wei, Xiangdong, 2005. "The Implicit Costs and Benefits of Family Friendly Work Practices," IZA Discussion Papers 1581, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Julie L. Hotchkiss & M. Melinda Pitts & Mary Beth Walker, 2011. "To work or not to work: the economics of a mother's dilemma," Working Paper 2011-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  18. Kazumasa, Oguro & Shoichiro, Yuyama, 2008. "A Study on Financial Deficit and Declining Birthrate — From the Viewpoint of “Children as a Social Security Revenue Source” —-," MPRA Paper 16120, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  19. Heywood, John S. & Siebert, W. Stanley & Wei, Xiangdong, 2006. "Examining the Determinants of Agency Work: Do Family Friendly Practices Play a Role?," IZA Discussion Papers 2413, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Adrienne ten Cate, 2003. "The Impact of Provincial Maternity and Parental Leave Policies on Employment Rates of Women with Young Children in Canada," Department of Economics Working Papers 2003-03, McMaster University.
  21. Kazumasa Oguro & Shoichiro Yuyama, 2008. "A Study on Financial Deficit and Declining Birthrate  From the Viewpoint of “Children as a Social Security Revenue Sourceâ€Â," Development Economics Working Papers 22605, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  22. Barbara Hanel, 2012. "The Impact of Paid Maternity Leave on Labour Market Outcomes," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2012n19, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  23. Ziefle, Andrea, 2004. "Die individuellen Kosten des Erziehungsurlaubs: eine empirische Analyse der kurz- und längerfristigen Folgen für den Karriereverlauf von Frauen," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment SP I 2004-102, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).

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