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Control consolidation with a threshold: an algorithm

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  • Ariane Chapelle
  • Ariane Szafarz

Abstract

Control tunnelling over firms can be reached through pyramids, cross-ownership, and other complex features. This phenomenon is frequent in Europe and in Asia. However, the theoretical literature has not yet converged toward a well-defined and robust measurement of integrated control that takes into account the threshold for control as applied in practice. Based on graph theory, this paper aims at filling this gap and proposes a new algorithm for evaluating the control tunnelling exerted by the firms' ultimate shareholders. Then, the paper discusses the various forms of control existing next to voting shares, like multiple voting rights, board representation and active monitoring, before suggesting ways to include them into the modelling of control.

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File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/9985/1/ac-0028.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series Working Papers CEB with number 06-007.RS.

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Length: 20 p.
Date of creation: May 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Solvay Business School, Centre Emile Bernheim (CEB)
Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:06-007

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Keywords: Ownership; Corporate control; ultimate shareholder.;

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References

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  1. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1987. "One Share/One Vote and The Market for Corporate Control," Working papers 440, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  2. Ariane Chapelle, 2001. "Corporate governance en Belgique: l'effet des pyramides," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9933, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Goergen, M. & Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2005. "Corporate Governance Convergence: Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe," Discussion Paper 2005-63, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  4. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Working Papers CEB 05-004.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  5. Bennedsen, Morten & Wolfenzon, Daniel, 2000. "The balance of power in closely held corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 113-139.
  6. Becht, Marco & Bolton, Patrick & Roell, Ailsa, 2003. "Corporate governance and control," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 1-109 Elsevier.
  7. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, 04.
  8. Jensen, Michael C. & Warner, Jerold B., 1988. "The distribution of power among corporate managers, shareholders, and directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 3-24, January.
  9. Luc Renneboog & Julian Franks & Colin Mayer, 1999. "Who Disciplines Management in Poorly Performing Companies?," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe01, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  10. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
  11. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2000. "Ferreting Out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups," NBER Working Papers 7952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Wahal, Sunil, 1996. "Pension Fund Activism and Firm Performance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(01), pages 1-23, March.
  13. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1999. "A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control," NBER Working Papers 7203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2005. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," DULBEA Working Papers in, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  15. Koke, Jens, 2004. "The market for corporate control in a bank-based economy: a governance device?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 53-80, January.
  16. Flath, David, 1992. "Indirect shareholding within Japan's business groups," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 223-227, February.
  17. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2002. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," NBER Working Papers 8711, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. John S. Earle & Csaba Kucsera & Almos Telegdy, . "Ownership Concentration and Corporate Performance on the Budapest Stock Exchange: Do Too Many Cooks Spoil the Goulash?," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles jse20053, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  19. repec:rus:hseeco:72155 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Guercio, Diane Del & Hawkins, Jennifer, 1999. "The motivation and impact of pension fund activism," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 293-340, June.
  21. Zingales, Luigi, 1994. "The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 125-48.
  22. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marc Levy & Ariane Szafarz, 2011. "Corporate Control with Cross-Ownership," Working Papers CEB 11-053, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Marc Lévy, 2009. "Control in pyramidal structures," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14291, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Marc Lévy, 2010. "La «Pax Electrica» a-t-elle réduit le contrôle de Suez sur Elia, le transporteur belge d’électricité?," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 13(4), pages 139-159, December.
  4. Evžen Kočenda & Jan Hanousek, 2012. "State ownership and control in the Czech Republic," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 157-191, August.
  5. Jan Hanousek & Evžen Kočenda, 2011. "Extent of the Integrated State Ownership and Effect of the State Control on Performance of Czech Firms," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2011(1), pages 82-104.

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