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Control consolidation with a threshold: an algorithm

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  • Ariane Chapelle
  • Ariane Szafarz

Abstract

Control tunnelling over firms can be reached through pyramids, cross-ownership, and other complex features. This phenomenon is frequent in Europe and in Asia. However, the theoretical literature has not yet converged toward a well-defined and robust measurement of integrated control that takes into account the threshold for control as applied in practice. Based on graph theory, this paper aims at filling this gap and proposes a new algorithm for evaluating the control tunnelling exerted by the firms' ultimate shareholders. Then, the paper discusses the various forms of control existing next to voting shares, like multiple voting rights, board representation and active monitoring, before suggesting ways to include them into the modelling of control.

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File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/9985/1/ac-0028.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series Working Papers CEB with number 06-007.RS.

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Length: 20 p.
Date of creation: May 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Solvay Business School, Centre Emile Bernheim (CEB)
Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:06-007

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Keywords: Ownership; Corporate control; ultimate shareholder.;

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References

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  1. Goergen, M. & Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2005. "Corporate Governance Convergence: Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe," Discussion Paper 2005-63, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. Grossman, Sanford J. & Hart, Oliver D., 1988. "One share-one vote and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 175-202, January.
  3. Koke, Jens, 2004. "The market for corporate control in a bank-based economy: a governance device?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 53-80, January.
  4. Patrick Bolton & Marco Becht & Alisa Röell, 2002. "Corporate Governance and Control," NBER Working Papers 9371, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Franks, Julian & Mayer, Colin & Renneboog, Luc, 2001. "Who Disciplines Management in Poorly Performing Companies?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 209-248, July.
  6. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "Ferreting Out Tunneling: An Application To Indian Business Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 121-148, February.
  7. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
  8. Flath, David, 1992. "Indirect shareholding within Japan's business groups," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 223-227, February.
  9. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  10. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 537-600, 04.
  11. Chapelle, Ariane & Szafarz, Ariane, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 355(2), pages 509-529.
  12. Jensen, M.C. & Wamer, J.B., 1988. "The Distribution Of Power Among Corporate Managers, Shareholders, And Directors," Papers 88-06, Rochester, Business - Managerial Economics Research Center.
  13. Wahal, Sunil, 1996. "Pension Fund Activism and Firm Performance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(01), pages 1-23, March.
  14. John S. Earle & Csaba Kucsera & Almos Telegdy, 2003. "Ownership Concentration and Corporate Performance on the Budapest Stock Exchange: Do Too Many Cooks Spoil the Goulash?," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 03-93, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  15. Bennedsen, Morten & Wolfenzon, Daniel, 2000. "The balance of power in closely held corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 113-139.
  16. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," NBER Working Papers 6625, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1999. "A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control," NBER Working Papers 7203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Ariane Chapelle, 2001. "Corporate governance en Belgique: l'effet des pyramides," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9933, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  19. Guercio, Diane Del & Hawkins, Jennifer, 1999. "The motivation and impact of pension fund activism," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 293-340, June.
  20. repec:rus:hseeco:72155 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Zingales, Luigi, 1994. "The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 125-48.
  22. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marc Levy, 2006. "Control in Pyramidal Structures," Working Papers CEB 06-023.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Marc Lévy, 2010. "La «Pax Electrica» a-t-elle réduit le contrôle de Suez sur Elia, le transporteur belge d’électricité?," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 13(4), pages 139-159, December.
  3. Jan Hanousek & Evžen Kočenda, 2011. "Extent of the Integrated State Ownership and Effect of the State Control on Performance of Czech Firms," Politická ekonomie, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2011(1), pages 82-104.
  4. Evžen Kocenda & Jan Hanousek, 2009. "State Ownership and Control in the Czech Republic," CESifo Working Paper Series 2801, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Marc Levy & Ariane Szafarz, 2011. "Corporate Control with Cross-Ownership," Working Papers CEB 11-053, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

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