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Corporate Control with Cross-Ownership

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  • Marc Levy
  • Ariane Szafarz

Abstract

Cross-ownership breaks the traditional rule of one-sided corporate control. Using a novel approach based on stochastic voting processes, this paper proposes a general method to determine control stakes in the presence of cross-ownership. It offers a generalization of the Banzhaf index, which allows coping with cross-ownership-inclusive ownership graphs. The original feature of this approach is its absolute sequentiality. We also operationalize this new approach by building an algorithm, which determines the shareholders’ respective control powers in any corporate structure. From a governance viewpoint, we emphasize that cross-ownership may act as a powerful device for shareholders’ expropriation. To make this point, we revisit the leading example of the German Allianz Group.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series Working Papers CEB with number 11-053.

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Length: 41 p.
Date of creation: Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by:
Handle: RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/101958

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Related research

Keywords: ownership and control; cross-ownership; tunneling; Banzhaf index; Allianz group;

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References

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  1. Levy, Marc, 2011. "The Banzhaf index in complete and incomplete shareholding structures: A new algorithm," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 215(2), pages 411-421, December.
  2. Victor Dorofeenko & Larry Lang & Klaus Ritzberger & Jamsheed Shorish, 2008. "Who controls Allianz?," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 75-103, January.
  3. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Working Papers CEB 05-004.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  4. Gugler, Klaus & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin, 2003. "Corporate governance and dividend pay-out policy in Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 731-758, August.
  5. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Malueg, David A., 1992. "Collusive behavior and partial ownership of rivals," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 27-34, March.
  7. Turnovec, Frantisek, 1999. "Privatization, ownership structure and transparency: how to measure the true involvement of the state," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 605-618, November.
  8. Marc Levy, 2006. "Control in Pyramidal Structures," Working Papers CEB 06-023.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  9. Nicodano, Giovanna, 1998. "Corporate groups, dual-class shares and the value of voting rights," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1117-1137, September.
  10. Ariane Chapelle, 2001. "Corporate governance en Belgique: l'effet des pyramides," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9933, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  11. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2007. "Control consolidation with a threshold: An algorithm," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/6065, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
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