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The Combined Effect of Salary Restrictions and Revenue Sharing in Sports Leagues

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Author Info

  • Helmut Dietl

    ()
    (Institute for Strategy and Business Economics, University of Zurich)

  • Markus Lang

    ()
    (Institute for Strategy and Business Economics, University of Zurich)

  • Alexander Rathke

    ()
    (Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich)

Abstract

Many major sports leagues are characterized by a combination of cross-subsidization mechanisms like revenue-sharing arrangements and payroll restrictions. Up to now, the effects of these policy tools have only been analyzed separately. This article provides a theoretical model of a team sports league and analyzes the combined effect of salary restrictions (caps and floors) and revenue sharing. It shows that the effect on club profits, player salaries, and competitive balance crucially depends on the mix of these policy tools. Moreover, the invariance proposition does not hold even under Walrasian-conjectures if revenue sharing is combined with a salary cap or floor.

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File URL: http://repec.business.uzh.ch/RePEc/rsd/CRSA_WPS/27_CRSA_full.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA) in its series Working Papers with number 0027.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2009
Date of revision: Jan 2010
Handle: RePEc:rsd:wpaper:0027

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Related research

Keywords: Team sports leagues; invariance proposition; competitive balance; revenue sharing; salary cap; salary floor;

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References

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  1. Stergios Skaperdas, 1996. "Contest success functions (*)," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 283-290.
  2. Késenne S., 1999. "The impact of salary caps in professional team sports," Working Papers 1999026, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  3. Edward P. Lazear & Sherwin Rosen, 1979. "Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts," NBER Working Papers 0401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang & Alexander Rathke, 2007. "The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare," Working Papers 0016, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  5. Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Markus Lang, 2005. "Overinvestment in Team Sports Leagues: A Contest Theory Model," Working Papers 0038, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised 2007.
  6. Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang, 2006. "The Effect of Gate Revenue-Sharing on Social Welfare," Working Papers 0012, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA), revised 2007.
  7. Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
  8. Rodney Fort & Jason Winfree, 2009. "Sports Really are Different: The Contest Success Function and the Supply of Talent," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 69-80, February.
  9. Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang & Stephan Werner, 2008. "Social Welfare in Sports Leagues with Profit-Maximizing and/or Win-Maximizing Clubs," Working Papers 0826, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
  10. Rodney Fort & Young Hoon Lee, 2007. "Structural Change, Competitive Balance, And The Rest Of The Major Leagues," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 45(3), pages 519-532, 07.
  11. Cyrenne, Philippe, 2001. "A Quality-of-Play Model of a Professional Sports League," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(3), pages 444-52, July.
  12. El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-19, Nov.-Dec..
  13. Rodney Fort & James Quirk, 2007. "Rational Expectations And Pro Sports Leagues," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 54(3), pages 374-387, 07.
  14. Thomas Hoehn & Stefan Szymanski, 1999. "The Americanization of European football," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 14(28), pages 203-240, 04.
  15. Idson, Todd L & Kahane, Leo H, 2000. "Team Effects on Compensation: An Application to Salary Determination in the National Hockey League," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(2), pages 345-57, April.
  16. Christian Riis & Derek J. Clark, 1997. "Contest success functions: an extension," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 201-204.
  17. Stefan Kesenne, 2000. "Revenue Sharing and Competitive Balance in Professional Team Sports," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 1(1), pages 56-65, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Martin Grossmann & Markus Lang, 2009. "Contest Theory and its Applications in Sports," Working Papers 0029, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  2. Helmut Dietl & Tobias Duschl & Markus Lang, 2010. "Gehaltsobergrenzen und Luxussteuern: Erkenntnisse aus dem professionellen Mannschaftssport," Working Papers 0136, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  3. Oliver Guertler & Markus Lang & Tim Pawlowski, 2011. "On the Release of Players to National Teams," Working Papers 0045, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  4. Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Markus Lang & Alexander Rathke, 2010. "Organizational Differences between U.S. Major Leagues and European Leagues: Implications for Salary Caps," Working Papers 0122, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  5. Egon Franck & Markus Lang, 2013. "A Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Money Injections on Risk Taking in Football Clubs," Working Papers 0160, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  6. Helmut Dietl & Tobias Duschl & Markus Lang, 2010. "Executive Pay Regulation: What Regulators, Shareholders, and Managers Can Learn from Major Sports Leagues," Working Papers 0129, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised Oct 2010.
  7. Helmut Dietl & Rodney Fort & Markus Lang, 2011. "International Sports League Comparisons," Working Papers 0042, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  8. Martin Grossmann & Andreas Hefti & Markus Lang, 2012. "Aggregative Contests and Ex-post Heterogeneity: the Case of the UEFA Champions League," Working Papers 0161, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  9. Papahristodoulou, Christos, 2009. "Bonus, effort, costs, market size and teams' performance," MPRA Paper 16989, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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