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The Sugar Daddy Game: How Wealthy Investors Change Competition in Professional Team Sports

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  • Markus Lang
  • Martin Grossmann
  • Philipp Theiler

Abstract

Professional sports leagues have witnessed the appearance of sugar daddies - people who invest enormous amounts of money in clubs and become their owners. This paper presents a contest model of a professional sports league that incorporates this phenomenon. We analyze how the appearance of a sugar daddy alters competitive balance and social welfare with respect to a league with purely profit-maximizing club owners. We further show that the welfare effect of revenue sharing in a sugar daddy league is ambiguous and depends on the degree of redistribution and on whether the sugar daddy invests in a small or a large club.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen in its journal Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics.

Volume (Year): 167 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Pages: 557-577

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Handle: RePEc:mhr:jinste:urn:sici:0932-4569(201112)167:4_557:tsdghw_2.0.tx_2-l

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References

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  1. Dixit, Avinash K, 1987. "Strategic Behavior in Contests," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 891-98, December.
  2. Pedro Garcia-del-Barrio & Stefan Szymanski, 2006. "Goal! Profit maximization and win maximization in football leagues," Working Papers 0621, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
  3. Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang & Alexander Rathke, 2007. "The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare," Working Papers 0072, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  4. KÉSENNE, Stefan, . "Revenue sharing and competitive balance in professional team sports," Working Papers 1999019, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  5. Rodney Fort & James Quirk, 2007. "Rational Expectations And Pro Sports Leagues," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 54(3), pages 374-387, 07.
  6. Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang & Stephan Werner, 2008. "Social Welfare in Sports Leagues with Profit-Maximizing and/or Win-Maximizing Clubs," Working Papers 0090, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised Jul 2009.
  7. Martin Grossmann & Helmut Dietl & Markus Lang, 2007. "Revenue Sharing and Competitive Balance in a Dynamic Contest Model," Working Papers 0015, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA), revised May 2009.
  8. Egon Franck, 2010. "Private Firm, Public Corporation or Member’s Association Governance Structures in European Football," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 5(2), pages 108-127, May.
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  10. John Vrooman, 2007. "Theory Of The Beautiful Game: The Unification Of European Football," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 54(3), pages 314-354, 07.
  11. Helmut Dietl & Egon Franck & Markus Lang, 2005. "Overinvestment in Team Sports Leagues: A Contest Theory Model," Working Papers 0038, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised 2007.
  12. Helmut M. Dietl & Markus Lang, 2008. "The Effect Of Gate Revenue Sharing On Social Welfare," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(3), pages 448-459, 07.
  13. Martin Grossmann & Helmut M. Dietl, 2009. "Investment Behaviour in a Two-Period Contest Model," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 165(3), pages 401-417, September.
  14. Andrew Zimbalist, 2003. "Sport as Business," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(4), pages 503-511, Winter.
  15. Christian Riis & Derek J. Clark, 1997. "Contest success functions: an extension," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 201-204.
  16. Egon Franck, 2010. "„Zombierennen“ und „Patenonkel“ - Warum deutsche Fussballklubs in der Champions League den Kürzeren ziehen," Working Papers 0036, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  17. Sonia Falconieri & Frédéric Palomino & József Sákovics, 2004. "Collective Versus Individual Sale of Television Rights in League Sports," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(5), pages 833-862, 09.
  18. El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Quirk, James, 1971. "An Economic Model of a Professional Sports League," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(6), pages 1302-19, Nov.-Dec..
  19. Scott E. Atkinson & Linda R. Stanley & John Tschirhart, 1988. "Revenue Sharing as an Incentive in an Agency Problem: An example from the National Football League," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(1), pages 27-43, Spring.
  20. Stergios Skaperdas, 1996. "Contest success functions (*)," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 283-290.
  21. Flynn, Michael A & Gilbert, Richard J, 2001. "The Analysis of Professional Sports Leagues as Joint Ventures," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(469), pages F27-46, February.
  22. Thomas Hoehn & Stefan Szymanski, 1999. "The Americanization of European football," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 14(28), pages 203-240, 04.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Oliver Guertler & Markus Lang & Tim Pawlowski, 2011. "On the Release of Players to National Teams," Working Papers 0046, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  2. Egon Franck & Markus Lang, 2013. "A Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Money Injections on Risk Taking in Football Clubs," Working Papers 0160, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  3. Martin Grossmann, 2011. "Evolutionarily Stable Strategies in Sports Contests," Working Papers 0044, University of Zurich, Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA).
  4. Helmut Dietl & Rodney Fort & Markus Lang, 2011. "International Sports League Comparisons," Working Papers 0144, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  5. Helmut M. Dietl & Egon Franck & Markus Lang & Alexander Rathke, 2012. "Salary Cap Regulation In Professional Team Sports," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(3), pages 307-319, 07.
  6. Martin Grossmann & Andreas Hefti & Markus Lang, 2012. "Aggregative Contests and Ex-post Heterogeneity: the Case of the UEFA Champions League," Working Papers 0161, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).

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