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Efficacité et productivité des banques de la zone UEMOA dans un contexte de réformes financières. Une application de la méthode DEA (Banks efficiency and productivity in the WAEMU in a context of financial reforms : an application of the DEA method)

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  • Hodonou DANNON

    ()
    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    L’objectif de cette étude est d’une part de mesurer les effets des réformes financières sur l’efficacité et la productivité des banques de la zone UEMOA sur la période de 1996 à 2006 et, d’autre part, de faire ressortir les principaux déterminants managériaux de l’efficacité de ces banques. L’estimation des scores de productivité et d’efficacité est effectuée au moyen de l’analyse de l’enveloppement des données (DEA). Les résultats montrent premièrement que les inefficiences techniques pures dominent les inefficiences d’échelle au niveau de tous les pays la zone excepté le Sénégal. Ainsi, l’inefficience relève plus d’une sous-utilisation des inputs que de rendements d’échelle inappropriés. Deuxièmement, la productivité globale des facteurs a connu une amélioration due essentiellement à la variation positive des progrès technologiques au détriment de l’efficacité technique sur toute la période de l’étude. Ceci laisse penser que les réformes financières n’ont pas permis aux banques de la zone d’améliorer leur efficacité technique. L’évolution de leur productivité est avant tout expliquée par les progrès technologiques existants dans le secteur bancaire de l’espace UEMOA. Troisièmement, les banques de petite taille de la zone UEMOA font plus d’efforts pour réduire la consommation des inputs que celles de grande taille. Par ailleurs, l’efficience d’échelle augmente pour ensuite descendre plus bas qu’à son niveau initial. Cette observation révèle l’existence d’une taille optimale au-delà de laquelle les banques subiraient des déséconomies d’échelle. Quatrièmement, les banques domestiques privées ont un léger avantage en termes d’efficience technique globale et d’efficacité d’échelle sur les banques étrangères tandis que les banques d’Etat ont enregistré les plus faibles scores en termes d’efficacité et de productivité. L’analyse des déterminants des scores d’efficacité montre que l’origine de la propriété, la taille des banques et l’étendue du réseau bancaire ne constituent guère des facteurs déterminants de l’efficacité des banques, du moins pour ce qui concerne les pays de l’UEMOA. En revanche, l’efficacité est influencée par le ratio de capitalisation des banques de l’Union. Enfin, la structure du portefeuille d’actifs des banques et la part des dépôts dans le total bilan sont des variables qui se sont avérées déterminantes aussi bien de l’efficacité technique globale que de l’efficacité technique pure. The purpose of this study is firstly to measure the effects of financial reforms in banks productivity and efficiency in the WAEMU area during the 1996-2006 period, and secondly, to draw the mains managerial determinants of banks efficiency. The productivity and efficiency scores are estimated through the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Our empirical results show firstly that pure technical inefficiencies are higher than scale inefficiencies in all the countries of the area except for Senegal. Thus, the inefficiency stems rather from an under-use of inputs than from an inappropriate return to scale. Secondly, we notice a growth of the global productivity factors which is essentially due to the positive variation of technological progress. Consequently, financial reforms did not permit to banks to increase their technical efficiency. Thirdly, small banks make more efforts to reduce their inputs consumption than great banks. One the other hand, scale efficiency at first increases to decrease then below its initial level. This observation means that there is an optimal size beyond which banks would undergo diseconomies of scale. Fourthly, private domestic-owned banks have a slight advantage on foreign banks in terms of global technical efficiency and scale efficiency while State-owned banks recorded the weakest efficiency and productivity scores. We furthermore conclude that the ownership’s origin, the size of banks and the breadth of the financial network are not much determinant factors of banks efficiency, at least in the WAEMU countries. However, the efficiency is influenced by the capitalization’s ratio of the banks of the Union. Finally, the structure of the banks' portfolio of assets and the proportion of their deposits in the total balance are revealed to be determinants of global as well as pure technical efficiency.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 216.

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    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: May 2009
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, May 2009
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:216

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    Keywords: banks; efficiency; productivity; data envelopment analysis; financial reforms;

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