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The effects of geographic expansion on bank efficiency

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  • Allen N. Berger
  • Robert DeYoung

Abstract

We assess the effects of geographic expansion on bank efficiency using cost and profit efficiency for over 7,000 U.S. banks, 1993-1998. We find that parent organizations exercise some control over the efficiency of their affiliates, although this control tends to dissipate with distance to the affiliate. However, on average, distance-related efficiency effects tend to be modest, suggesting that some efficient organizations can overcome any effects of distance. The results imply there may be no particular optimal geographic scope for banking organizations - some may operate efficiently within a single region, while others may operate efficiently on a nationwide or international basis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in its series Working Paper Series with number WP-00-14.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-00-14

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Keywords: Bank mergers ; Financial institutions ; Banks and banking - Costs;

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References

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  1. C. Edward Chang & Iftekhar Hasan & William Hunter, 1998. "Efficiency of multinational banks: an empirical investigation," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(6), pages 689-696.
  2. McAllister, Patrick H. & McManus, Douglas, 1993. "Resolving the scale efficiency puzzle in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 389-405, April.
  3. Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Lovell, C. A. K. & Sahay, Pankaj, 1997. "The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 332-345, April.
  4. TULKENS, Henry & MALNERO, Amador, 1994. "Nonparametric Approaches to the Assessment of the Relative Efficiency of Bank Branches," CORE Discussion Papers 1994047, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  5. Parkan, Celik, 1987. "Measuring the efficiency of service operations: An application to bank branches," Engineering Costs and Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-4), pages 237-242, July.
  6. Allen N. Berger & J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1995. "The Coexistence of Multiple Distributions Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-13, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. Oral, Muhittin & Yolalan, Reha, 1990. "An empirical study on measuring operating efficiency and profitability of bank branches," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 282-294, June.
  8. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-66, September.
  9. Berger, Allen N. & Leusner, John H. & Mingo, John J., 1997. "The efficiency of bank branches," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 141-162, September.
  10. DeYoung, Robert & Nolle, Daniel E, 1996. "Foreign-Owned Banks in the United States: Earning Market Share or Buying It?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 622-36, November.
  11. Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
  12. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
  13. Kenneth Spong & Richard J. Sullivan & Robert DeYoung, 1995. "What makes a bank efficient? : a look at financial characteristics and management and ownership structure," Financial Industry Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Dec, pages 1-19.
  14. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung, 2000. "The effects of geographic expansion on bank efficiency," Working Paper Series WP-00-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  15. Schaffnit, Claire & Rosen, Dan & Paradi, Joseph C., 1997. "Best practice analysis of bank branches: An application of DEA in a large Canadian bank," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 269-289, April.
  16. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
  17. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-99, May.
  18. Joseph P. Hughes & William Lang & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 1998. "The Dollars and Sense of Bank Consolidation," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-04, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  19. Joseph P. Hughes & William Lang & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 1996. "Efficient banking under interstate branching," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 1045-1075.
  20. Allen Berger & Timothy Hannan, 1994. "The Efficiency Cost of Market Power in the Banking Industry: A Test of the 'Quiet Life' and Related Hypotheses," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-29, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  21. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  22. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-06, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  23. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "Efficiency of Financial Institutions: International Survey and Directions for Future Research," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-05, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  24. Giokas, DI, 1991. "Bank branch operating efficiency: A comparative application of DEA and the loglinear model," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 549-557.
  25. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  26. Grabowski, Richard & Rangan, Nanda & Rezvanian, Rasoul, 1993. "Organizational forms in banking: An empirical investigation of cost efficiency," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 531-538, April.
  27. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 1999. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Working Paper Series WP-99-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  28. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
  29. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 107, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  30. Mahajan, Arvind & Rangan, Nanda & Zardkoohi, Asghar, 1996. "Cost structures in multinational and domestic banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 283-306, March.
  31. Athanassopoulos, Antreas D., 1997. "Service quality and operating efficiency synergies for management control in the provision of financial services: Evidence from Greek bank branches," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 300-313, April.
  32. Mester, Loretta J., 1996. "A study of bank efficiency taking into account risk-preferences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1025-1045, July.
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