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Is Energy Consumption Per Capita Stationary? Evidence from First and Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests

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  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Tiwari, Aviral Kumar
  • Khan, Saleheen

Abstract

This paper investigates the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita of 103 high, middle and low income countries using first and second generation panel unit root tests. Our results indicate that energy consumption per capita contains stationary process in all groups of countries. This suggests that short run energy policies should be followed to sustain economic growth and to fulfill energy demand.

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File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/41607/
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 41607.

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Date of creation: 24 Sep 2012
Date of revision: 27 Sep 2012
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:41607

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Keywords: Energy Consumption; Panel Unit Root Test;

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References

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  1. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
  2. Mishra, Vinod & Sharma, Susan & Smyth, Russell, 2009. "Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2318-2326, June.
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  7. MOON, Hyungsik Roger & PERRON, Benoit., 2002. "Testing for a Unit Root in Panels with Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 2002-18, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
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  16. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 473-479.
  17. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  18. Apergis, Nicholas & Loomis, David & Payne, James E., 2010. "Are shocks to natural gas consumption temporary or permanent? Evidence from a panel of U.S. states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4734-4736, August.
  19. Christophe Hurlin & Elena Dumitrescu, 2012. "Testing for Granger Non-causality in Heterogeneous Panels," Working Papers halshs-00224434, HAL.
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  22. Apergis, Nicholas & Loomis, David & Payne, James E., 2010. "Are fluctuations in coal consumption transitory or permanent? Evidence from a panel of US states," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(7), pages 2424-2426, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2014. "Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 102-115.
  2. Okajima, Shigeharu & Okajima, Hiroko, 2013. "Estimation of Japanese price elasticities of residential electricity demand, 1990–2007," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 433-440.

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