Gender-bias in Education Opportunities for Population Aged 12-18 in Mexico: 1992-2004
AbstractThere is considerable evidence that resources are not allocated randomly within households, and that resources are unequally distributed within the family in many developing countries. Such an unequal distribution of goods usually takes the form of a bias against females. For example, girls lag markedly behind boys in schooling in many developing countries even though this gender gap has been declining in recent years. Using an OLS-Robust model and a ML-Random Effects model for the years 1992, 1998 and 2004 of ENIGH, we did not find enough statistical evidence to support the idea that poor families, nether in rural nor in urban areas, provide more education to their 12 to 18 years old sons or daughters. In fact, contrary to the common belief, we found that non-poor families, invest more in the education of their daughters, especially in the urban areas. However, this education discrimination against male children has been decreasing over the years. It is also found that female head of households are more likely to have children with higher levels of schooling and that children having both parents at home or having older brothers or sisters present higher levels of educational attainment.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 3561.
Date of creation: 07 May 2007
Date of revision:
Gender-bias; discrimination; Poverty; Mexican studies; intra-household allocation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I39 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare and Poverty - - - Other
- I29 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Other
- O54 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-06-18 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2007-06-18 (Development)
- NEP-EDU-2007-06-18 (Education)
- NEP-HRM-2007-06-18 (Human Capital & Human Resource Management)
- NEP-LAB-2007-06-18 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Behrman, Jere R, 1988. "Intrahousehold Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys Favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality Aversion?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 32-54, March.
- Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1990. "Estimating the Intrahousehold Incidence of Illness: Child Health and Gender-Inequality in the Allocation of Time," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 969-80, November.
- Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
- Pitt, Mark M. & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Hassan, Md. Nazmul, 1989.
"Productivity, Health and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-Income Countries,"
7480, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R & Hassan, Md Nazmul, 1990. "Productivity, Health, and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-Income Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1139-56, December.
- Thomas, D., 1989.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Mayer Foulkes, David & Cordourier Real, Gabriela, 2001. "La brecha salarial y la teoría de igualdad de oportunidades. Un estudio de género para el caso mexicano," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(269), pages 71-107, enero-mar.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-15, September.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
- William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
- Behrman, Jere R & Pollak, Robert A & Taubman, Paul, 1982. "Parental Preferences and Provision for Progeny," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(1), pages 52-73, February.
- Quisumbing, A.R., 1991.
"Intergenerational Transfers in Philippine Rice Villages: Gender Differences in Traditional Inheritance Customs,"
632, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1994. "Intergenerational transfers in Philippine rice villages : Gender differences in traditional inheritance customs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 167-195, April.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1984. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 521-22, June.
- Haddad, L. & Hoddinott, J., 1991. "Gender Aspects of Household Expenditures and Resource Allocation in the Cote d'Ivoire," Economics Series Working Papers 99112, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Anil B. Deolalikar, 1993. "Gender Differences in the Returns to Schooling and in School Enrollment Rates in Indonesia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 899-932.
- Deaton, Angus S, 1989. "Looking for Boy-Girl Discrimination in Household Expenditure Data," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 3(1), pages 1-15, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.