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Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve

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  • Akpan, Usenobong F.
  • Chuku, Agbai

Abstract

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is a presumption that environmental degradation follows an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth. The thorny question of whether economic growth could provide a cure to environmental degradation has sparked off a large body of empirical studies in the last decade. The conclusions have been mixed. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Nigeria by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework to annual time series data from 1960 to 2008. The traditional EKC model is extended by including (in addition to the level, square and cubed values of the income variable), trade openness as well as the shares of manufacturing, agriculture and service sectors in Nigeria’s GDP. Using Co2 emissions per capita to proxy environmental degradation, our findings do not support the existence of the EKC hypothesis. Rather our results show that Nigeria’s situation when confronted with data is exemplified by an N-shaped relationship with a turning point at $77.27 that lies below the data set used for the study. Based on these findings, the paper posit that the hypothesized EKC serves as a dangerous policy guide to solving environmental problems in Nigeria. The conclusion is that to ensure sustainability, there exist an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Nigeria irrespective of the country’s level of income.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 31241.

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Date of creation: 27 Apr 2011
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31241

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Keywords: Environmental Degradation; ARDL; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Nigeria;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Cowan, Wendy N. & Chang, Tsangyao & Inglesi-Lotz, Roula & Gupta, Rangan, 2014. "The nexus of electricity consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in the BRICS countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 359-368.
  2. Godwin Effiong Akpan & Usenobong Friday Akpan, 2012. "Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, Econjournals, vol. 2(4), pages 292-306.
  3. F. Akpan, Usenobong & E. Abang, Dominic, 2014. "Environmental Quality and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of the "U" in Kuznets," MPRA Paper 54461, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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