Do Parking Requirements Significantly Increase The Area Dedicated To Parking? A Test Of The Effect Of Parking Requirements Values In Los Angeles County
AbstractMinimum parking requirements are the norm for urban and suburban development in the United States (Davidson and Dolnick (2002)). The justification for parking space requirements is that overflow parking will occupy nearby street or off-street parking. Shoup (1999) and Willson (1995) provides cases where there is reason to believe that parking space requirements have forced parcel developers to place more parking than they would in the absence of parking requirements. If the effect of parking minimums is to significantly increase the land area devoted to parking, then the increase in impervious surfaces would likely cause water quality degradation, increased flooding, and decreased groundwater recharge. However, to our knowledge the existing literature does not test the effect of parking minimums on the amount of lot space devoted to parking beyond a few case studies. This paper tests the hypothesis that parking space requirements cause an oversupply of parking by examining the implicit marginal value of land allocated to parking spaces. This is an indirect test of the effects of parking requirements that is similar to Glaeser and Gyourko (2003). A simple theoretical model shows that the marginal value of additional parking to the sale price should be equal to the cost of land plus the cost of parking construction. We estimate the marginal values of parking and lot area with spatial methods using a large data set from the Los Angeles area non-residential property sales and find that for most of the property types the marginal value of parking is significantly below that of the parcel area. This evidence supports the contention that minimum parking requirements significantly increase the amount of parcel area devoted to parking.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 20403.
Date of creation: 25 Jan 2010
Date of revision:
Minimum Parking Requirements; Land Use; Externalities;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations
- H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Krinsky, Itzhak & Robb, A Leslie, 1986. "On Approximating the Statistical Properties of Elasticities," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(4), pages 715-19, November.
- McCluskey, Jill & Rausser, Gordon C., 2000.
"Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates,"
Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series
qt0z9156qx, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- McCluskey, Jill J. & Rausser, Gordon C., 2003. "Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 166-176, March.
- McCluskey, Jill Jennifer & Rausser, Gordon C, 2000. "Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates," CUDARE Working Paper Series 906, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- repec:ucp:bkecon:9781884829987 is not listed on IDEAS
- Peter F. Colwell & C. F. Sirmans, 1978. "Area, Time, Centrality and the Value of Urban Land," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 54(4), pages 514-519.
- Munneke, Henry J., 2005. "Dynamics of the urban zoning structure: An empirical investigation of zoning change," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 455-473, November.
- Bento, Antonio M. & Franco, Sofia F. & Kaffine, Daniel, 2006. "The efficiency and distributional impacts of alternative anti-sprawl policies," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 121-141, January.
- Robert A. Simons & Jesse D. Saginor, 2006. "A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Environmental Contamination and Positive Amenities on Residential Real Estate Values," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 28(1), pages 71-104.
- Jeffrey Fisher & Dean Gatzlaff & David Geltner & Donald Haurin, 2003. "Controlling for the Impact of Variable Liquidity in Commercial Real Estate Price Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(2), pages 269-303, 06.
- Small, Kenneth A., 2001.
"Using the Revenues from Congestion Pricing,"
University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers
qt7170x9b0, University of California Transportation Center.
- Small, Kenneth A., 1992. "Using the Revenues from Congestion Pricing," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt32p9m3mm, University of California Transportation Center.
- Peter Colwell & Henry Munneke, 2006. "Bargaining Strength and Property Class in Office Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 197-213, November.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Joseph Gyourko, 2003. "The impact of building restrictions on housing affordability," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jun, pages 21-39.
- Ihlanfeldt, Keith R. & Taylor, Laura O., 2004. "Externality effects of small-scale hazardous waste sites: evidence from urban commercial property markets," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 117-139, January.
- Anderson, Simon P. & de Palma, Andre, 2004. "The economics of pricing parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 1-20, January.
- Sudip Chattopadhyay & John B. Braden & Arianto Patunru, 2005. "Benefits Of Hazardous Waste Cleanup: New Evidence From Survey- And Market-Based Property Value Approaches," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 23(3), pages 357-375, 07.
- Munneke, Henry J., 1996. "Redevelopment Decisions for Commercial and Industrial Properties," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 229-253, March.
- Henry J. Munneke & Barrett A. Slade, 2001. "A Metropolitan Transaction-Based Commercial Price Index: A Time-Varying Parameter Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 29(1), pages 55-84.
- Peter F. Colwell & Henry J. Munneke & Joseph W. Trefzger, 1998. "Chicago's Office Market: Price Indices, Location and Time," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(1), pages 83-106.
- Richard Arnott & Tilmann Rave & Ronnie Schöb, 2005. "Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012197, December.
- Jonathan Levine & Aseem Inam, 2004. "The Market for Transportation-Land Use Integration: Do Developers Want Smarter Growth than Regulations Allow?," Transportation, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 409-427, November.
- Shoup, Donald C., 2004. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt3x03s541, University of California Transportation Center.
- Ecker, Mark D. & Isakson, Hans R., 2005. "A unified convex-concave model of urban land values," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 265-277, May.
- Maddison, David, 2006. "Environmental Kuznets curves: A spatial econometric approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 218-230, March.
- Shoup, Donald C., 2004. "The ideal source of local public revenue," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 753-784, November.
- Douglas Hodgson & Barrett Slade & Keith Vorkink, 2006. "Constructing Commercial Indices: A Semiparametric Adaptive Estimator Approach," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 151-168, March.
- Kiel, Katherine A. & Williams, Michael, 2007. "The impact of Superfund sites on local property values: Are all sites the same?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 170-192, January.
- Shoup, Donald C., 1999. "The trouble with minimum parking requirements," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 549-574.
- Clifford Winston, 2013. "On the Performance of the U.S. Transportation System: Caution Ahead," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 51(3), pages 773-824, September.
- Richard J. Arnott & Eren Inci & John Rowse, 2013. "Downtown Curbside Parking Capacity," CESifo Working Paper Series 4085, CESifo Group Munich.
- Jos van Ommeren & Jesper de Groote & Giuliano Mingardo, 2013. "Residential Parking Permits and Parking Supply," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-059/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.