The neglected heterogeneity of spatial agglomeration and co-location patterns of creative employment: evidence from Portugal
AbstractEmpirical literature on the geographic location of creative activities is mostly based on the spatial analysis of industries, disregarding the creative employment that lies outside the necessarily limited boundaries of creative industries. In this paper, we analyse agglomeration and co-location patterns of core creative activities by considering both ‘embedded’ (creative professionals working outside the creative sectors) and ‘specialized’ (creative professionals working in the creative sectors) creative employment. Using location quotients and principal component factor and cluster analyses, applied to all 308 Portuguese municipalities, for ten core creative groups, we found that the geographical agglomeration and co-location patterns of these core creative groups differ substantially. The typical arguments sustained by literature - the tendency of creative industries/ employment to agglomerate and co-locate in large metropolises - are only supported in the case of knowledge-intensive activities subjected to Intellectual Property Rights, most notably ‘Advertising/ Marketing’, ‘Publishing’, ‘TV/ Radio’, and ‘Software/ Digital Media’, densely concentrated and co-located in highly developed, large urban centres, with high levels of human capital. These arguments do not hold for the traditional creative activities of ‘Architecture’, ‘Design/ Visual Arts’ and ‘Crafts’, which, although co-located, appear mostly dispersed with small concentrations around intermediate urban centres. ‘Teaching/ training/ research’ present quite dispersed geographical patterns with some clusterization around municipalities with tertiary education institutions. ‘Film/ video/ photography’ and ‘Music/ Performing arts’ show some dispersion throughout the Portuguese territory with concentration around small urban centres and in rural areas. It is evident that, from agglomeration to co-location patterns, creative employment reveals heterogeneous characteristics across creative groups. Indeed, the results obtained show that the differentiated (co)location patterns of creative activities are mainly a regional phenomenon distinguishing regions within the same country, and not only an aspect differentiating countries in international comparisons.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto in its series FEP Working Papers with number 508.
Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2013
Date of revision:
Spatial economics; industrial location; creative industries;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
- R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
- R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-10-18 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2013-10-18 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-GEO-2013-10-18 (Economic Geography)
- NEP-URE-2013-10-18 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Blanca De Miguel Molina & JosÃ© Luis HervÃ¡s Oliver & Rafael Boix Domenech & MarÃa De Miguel Molina, 2011.
"The Importance of Creative Industry Agglomerations in Explaining the Wealth of European Regions,"
ERSA conference papers
ersa11p472, European Regional Science Association.
- Blanca de-Miguel-Molina & Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver & Rafael Boix & Maria De-Miguel-Molina, 2011. "The Importance of Creative Industry Agglomerations in Explaining the Wealth of European Regions," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(8), pages 1263-1280, March.
- Luciana Lazzeretti & Rafael Boix & Francesco Capone, 2008. "Do Creative Industries Cluster? Mapping Creative Local Production Systems in Italy and Spain," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(5), pages 549-567.
- David Mcgranahan & Timothy Wojan, 2007. "Recasting the Creative Class to Examine Growth Processes in Rural and Urban Counties," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 197-216.
- Helene Martin‐Brelot & Michel Grossetti & Denis Eckert & Olga Gritsai & Zoltán Kovács, 2010. "The Spatial Mobility of the ‘Creative Class’: A European Perspective," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(4), pages 854-870, December.
- Høgni Kalsø Hansen & Thomas Niedomysl, 2009. "Migration of the creative class: evidence from Sweden," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 191-206, March.
- Mellander, Charlotta & Florida, Richard, 2007. "The Creative Class or Human Capital? - explaining regional development in Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 79, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Mark Lorenzen & Kristina Vaarst Andersen, 2009. "Centrality and Creativity: Does Richard Florida's Creative Class Offer New Insights into Urban Hierarchy?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 363-390, October.
- Florida, Richard & Mellander, Charlotta & Stolarick, Kevin, 2007.
"Inside the Black Box of Regional Development - human capital, the creative class and tolerance,"
Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation
88, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Richard Florida & Charlotta Mellander & Kevin Stolarick, 2008. "Inside the black box of regional development: human capital, the creative class and tolerance," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 615-649, September.
- Luciana Lazzeretti & Francesco Capone & Rafael Boix, 2011. "Reasons for Clustering of Creative Industries in Italy and Spain," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(8), pages 1243-1262, July.
- Enrico E. Bertacchini & Paola Borrione, 2013. "The Geography of the Italian Creative Economy: The Special Role of the Design and Craft-based Industries," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 135-147, February.
- Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ellison, G. & Glaeser, E.L., 1994.
"Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach,"
94-27, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Ellison, Glenn & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 889-927, October.
- Glenn Ellison & Edward L. Glaeser, 1994. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," NBER Working Papers 4840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Allen Scott, 2002. "A new map of Hollywood: the production and distribution of American motion pictures," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 957-975.
- Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2009. "Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 391-423, October.
- Harald Bathelt, 2002. "The Re-emergence of a Media Industry Cluster in Leipzig," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(5), pages 583-611, July.
- Alessandra Faggian & Roberta Comunian & Sarah Jewell & Ursula Kelly, 2013. "Bohemian Graduates in the UK: Disciplines and Location Determinants of Creative Careers," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 183-200, February.
- Maurel, Francoise & Sedillot, Beatrice, 1999. "A measure of the geographic concentration in french manufacturing industries," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 575-604, September.
- Michael Fritsch & Michael Stützer, 2012. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany revisited," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-065, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
- Kristina Vaarst Andersen & H�gni Kals� Hansen & Arne Isaksen & Mika Raunio, 2010. "Nordic City Regions in the Creative Class Debate—Putting the Creative Class Thesis to a Test," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 215-240.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.