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French creative clusters: An exploratory spatial data analysis

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  • Chantelot Sébastien

Abstract

Since Florida (2002b) revealed the importance of creative skills on economic growth, the notion of “creative class” has been deepened to analyze factors that shape the geography of talent of creative people. In spite of some strong correlations between artistic or cultural vibrancy, Third places, diversity, and the presence of huge constellations of creative people in cities (Chantelot, 2009), urban size and economic opportunities appears to be the real reasons that encourage its mobility in Europe (Andersen and Lorenzen, 2009 ; Hansen and al., 2009 ; Grossetti, 2009). However, if a bulk of literature emerged in Northern Europe on these questions, the geography of the creative class in France really needs to be investigated. That’s why we propose here an original approach lying on Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. This paper analyses the agglomeration patterns for creative class in France in 1999 and 2006. We adopt a methodology allowing the measurement of the degree of spatial agglomeration and the identification of location patterns (Guillain and Le Gallo, 2008) of creative people. First, we compute the locational Gini coefficient and Moran’s I statistics of global spatial autocorrelation. We show that these measures provide different but complementary information about the spatial agglomeration of the creative class. Second, we use the tools of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. Moran scatterplots and LISA statistics allow us to shed light on clusters of French creative cities and to see how the different groups of creative people (bohemians - creative pro - creative core) affect the cluster’s structures. First, we find that creative class is highly concentrated in French cities, more than employment and population. Second, we identify and analyze several clusters of French creative cities that show virtuous path of creative people accumulation since 1990.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa10p477.

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Date of creation: Sep 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p477

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  1. Richard Florida & Charlotta Mellander & Kevin Stolarick, 2008. "Inside the black box of regional development: human capital, the creative class and tolerance," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 615-649, September.
  2. Chantelot, Sébastien, 2010. "Vers une mesure de la créativité : la construction de la classe créative française," Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Editions NecPlus, vol. 2010(03), pages 511-540, September.
  3. Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2009. "Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 391-423, October.
  4. Jamie Peck, 2005. "Struggling with the Creative Class," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 740-770, December.
  5. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  6. Mark Lorenzen & Kristina Vaarst Andersen, 2009. "Centrality and Creativity: Does Richard Florida's Creative Class Offer New Insights into Urban Hierarchy?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 363-390, October.
  7. Claude LACOUR (GREThA) & Sylvette PUISSANT (GREThA), 2008. "Medium-Sized Cities and the Dynamics of Creative Services," Cahiers du GREThA 2008-08, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  8. Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs & Sam Youl Lee, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-17, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  9. Simon, Curtis J., 1998. "Human Capital and Metropolitan Employment Growth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 223-243, March.
  10. Høgni Kalsø Hansen & Thomas Niedomysl, 2009. "Migration of the creative class: evidence from Sweden," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 191-206, March.
  11. Sébastien CHANTELOT, 2009. "La thèse de la « classe créative » : entre limites et développements," Géographie, économie, société, Lavoisier, vol. 11(4), pages 315-334.
  12. Frédéric GASCHET & Claude LACOUR, 2007. "Les systèmes productifs urbains : des clusters aux « clusties »," Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Armand Colin, vol. 0(4), pages 707-728.
  13. LE GALLO, Julie, 2000. "Econométrie spatiale 1 -Autocorrélation spatiale," LATEC - Document de travail - Economie (1991-2003) 2000-05, LATEC, Laboratoire d'Analyse et des Techniques EConomiques, CNRS UMR 5118, Université de Bourgogne.
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