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Hacia una educación de calidad en el Perú: El heterogéneo impacto de la educación inicial sobre el rendimiento escolar

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  • Arlette Beltrán

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Janice Seinfeld

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

Abstract

"La educación es considerada un factor fundamental para impulsar el desarrollo de una sociedad, especialmente por sus efectos positivos sobre el posterior desenvolvimiento del individuo en el mercado laboral y su mayor capacidad de generación de ingresos. En el caso específico de la educación inicial, este nivel educativo ha sido relegado dentro de las políticas públicas del sector y su importancia es subestimada por los propios padres de familia. En el presente trabajo se muestra que uno de los principales problemas en relación a la educación preescolar es el limitado acceso a una oferta educativa inicial de calidad. Si bien el nivel de cobertura es más bajo que lo deseado, lo más preocupante en realidad es que en las zonas más excluidas y dispersas del territorio nacional, esta cobertura la logran instituciones públicas de baja calidad y con modelos educativos no necesariamente adecuados a las realidades de cada comunidad, además de ser, en casi un 50%, cubierto por los programas no escolarizados, menos efectivos en lo que se refiere a resultados cognitivos. En el documento, se estima una función de producción del rendimiento escolar que tiene como factores explicativos tanto variables de demanda como de oferta. La función de rendimiento académico se aproxima a través de una estimación en dos etapas: en la primera, se corrigen los potenciales problemas de endogeneidad generados por la variable asistencia a educación inicial, y en la segunda se estima el rendimiento escolar en el área de Comprensión Lectora. Los resultados indican que la asistencia a educación inicial es una variable altamente explicativa del rendimiento escolar a nivel nacional. Asistir a educación inicial supone un incremento de 34% en el puntaje esperado en la prueba de Comprensión de Textos. Sin embargo, si estimamos este impacto de acuerdo con las variables de diferenciación utilizadas –dominio geográfico, lengua materna y nivel de pobreza- se observa una fuerte reducción del mencionado impacto en aquellos grupos marginados."

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico in its series Working Papers with number 11-06.

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Length: 67 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2011
Date of revision: Sep 2011
Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:11-06

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Web page: http://www.up.edu.pe/
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Keywords: Educación inicial; Acceso; Calidad; Discriminación; Perú;

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References

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