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Employment Concentration across US Counties

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  • Marcel Fafchamps
  • Klaus Desmet

Abstract

This paper examines the spatial distribution of jobs across US counties and investigates whether sectoral employment is becoming more or less concentrated. The existing literature has found deconcentration (convergence) of employment across urban areas. Cities only cover a small part of the US, though. Using county data, our results indicate that deconcentration is limited to the upper tail of the distribution. The overall picture is one of increasing concentration (divergence). While this seemingly contradicts the well documented deconcentration in manufacturing, we show that these aggregate employment dynamics are driven by services. Non-service sectors - such as manufacturing and farming - are indeed becoming more equally spread across space, but services are becoming increasingly concentrated.

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File URL: http://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/materials/working_papers/paper180.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number 180.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2003
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:180

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Keywords: Spatial Distribution; Convergence; Sectoral Employment; US Counties;

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  1. Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 6422, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Quah, Danny T, 1996. " Convergence Empirics across Economies with (Some) Capital Mobility," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 95-124, March.
  4. Michael Kremer & Alexei Onatski & James Stock, 2001. "Searching for Prosperity," NBER Working Papers 8250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  10. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
  12. Matthew Higgins & Daniel Levy & Andrew T. Young, 2003. "Growth and Convergence across the US: Evidence from County-Level Data," Working Papers 2003-03, Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University.
  13. Ciccone, Antonio, 2002. "Agglomeration effects in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 213-227, February.
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  17. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1991. "Urban Development: Theory, Fact, and Illusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195069020.
  18. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," CEPR Discussion Papers 820, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Gerald Carlino & Satyajit Chatterjee, 2001. "Employment deconcentration: a new perspective on America's postwar urban evolution," Working Papers 01-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  20. Quah, Danny T, 1997. " Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
  21. Desmet, Klaus & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2003. "What are Falling Transport Costs doing to Spatial Concentration Across US Counties?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3853, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476, January.
  23. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
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Cited by:
  1. Klaus Desmet & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2007. "Spatial Growth and Industry Age," NBER Working Papers 13302, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 459-472.
  3. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Reprint of development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 765-778.
  4. Giulio Bottazzi & Ugo Gragnolati & Fabio Vanni, 2014. "Non-linear externalities in firm locations: A computational estimation method," LEM Papers Series 2014/01, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  5. Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela & Rosina Moreno-Serrano & Esther Vaya-Valcarce, 2007. "Has concentration evolved similarly in manufacturing and services? A sensitivity analysis," IREA Working Papers 200708, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Apr 2007.
  6. Gordon Mulligan & Mark Partridge & John Carruthers, 2012. "Central place theory and its reemergence in regional science," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 405-431, April.
  7. Stark, Oded & Fan, C. Simon, 2007. "Rural-to-Urban Migration, Human Capital, and Agglomeration," Discussion Papers 7116, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  8. Arbia, Giuseppe & Piras, Gianfranco, 2009. "A new class of spatial concentration measures," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(12), pages 4471-4481, October.
  9. S├╝dekum, Jens, 2008. "Convergence of the skill composition across German regions," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 148-159, March.

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