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Non-linear externalities in firm localization


  • Giulio Bottazzi
  • Ugo M. Gragnolati
  • Fabio Vanni


This paper presents a model of firm localization allowing for non-linear, quadratic externalities. The model and its numerical estimation procedure manage to disentangle localization externalities from the intrinsic advantages of regions. Moreover, the introduction of a quadratic term can accommodate both more-than-linear positive feedbacks as well as congestion effects. Indeed, if the quadratic term is sufficiently negative, one location can reach the point in which the addition of an extra firm decreases the probability for that same location to further attract other firms. In this sense, the present model does not assume a priori that the localization choices of firms are characterized by positive interdependencies. Rather, the methodology allows to estimate whether or not this is actually the case.

Suggested Citation

  • Giulio Bottazzi & Ugo M. Gragnolati & Fabio Vanni, 2015. "Non-linear externalities in firm localization," LEM Papers Series 2015/28, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssa:lemwps:2015/28

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Giulio Bottazzi & Ugo Gragnolati, 2015. "Cities and Clusters: Economy-Wide and Sector-Specific Effects in Corporate Location," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(1), pages 113-129, January.
    2. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476, July.
    3. Gilles Duranton & Henry G. Overman, 2005. "Testing for Localization Using Micro-Geographic Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(4), pages 1077-1106.
    4. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2001. "The Determinants of Agglomeration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 191-229, September.
    5. Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel & Simpson, Helen, 2004. "The geographic distribution of production activity in the UK," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 533-564, September.
    6. Edward L. Glaeser & Glenn Ellison, 1999. "The Geographic Concentration of Industry: Does Natural Advantage Explain Agglomeration?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 311-316, May.
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    8. Giulio Bottazzi & Giovanni Dosi & Giorgio Fagiolo & Angelo Secchi, 2007. "Modeling industrial evolution in geographical space," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(5), pages 651-672, September.
    9. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
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    13. Ellison, Glenn & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 889-927, October.
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    15. Venables, Anthony J, 1996. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(2), pages 341-359, May.
    16. Bottazzi, Giulio & Dosi, Giovanni & Fagiolo, Giorgio & Secchi, Angelo, 2008. "Sectoral and geographical specificities in the spatial structure of economic activities," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 189-202, September.
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    21. Giulio Bottazzi & Angelo Secchi, 2007. "Repeated Choices under Dynamic Externalities," LEM Papers Series 2007/08, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
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    More about this item


    Firm localization; Externalities; Non-linearities;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C16 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Econometric and Statistical Methods; Specific Distributions
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General

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