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Employment Deconcentration: A New Perspective on America's Postwar Urban Evolution

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  • Gerald Carlino
  • Satyajit Chatterjee

Abstract

In this study we show that during the postwar era the United States experienced a decline in the share of urban employment accounted for by the relatively dense metropolitan areas and a corresponding rise in the share of relatively less dense ones. This trend, which we call "employment deconcentration", is distinct from the other well-known regional trend, namely, the postwar movement of jobs and people from the frostbelt to the sunbelt. We also show that deconcentration has been accompanied by a similar trend within metropolitan areas, wherein employment share of the more dense sections of MSAs has declined and that of the less dense sections risen. We provide a general equilibrium model with density-driven congestion costs to suggest an explanation for employment deconcentration. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishers Inc.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Regional Science.

Volume (Year): 42 (2002)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 445-475

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:42:y:2002:i:3:p:445-475

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References

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  1. Jonathan Eaton & Zvi Eckstein, 1994. "Cities and Growth: Theory and Evidence from france and Japan," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 36, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
  2. Chatterjee, Satyajit & Carlino, Gerald A., 2001. "Aggregate metropolitan employment growth and the deconcentration of metropolitan employment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 549-583, December.
  3. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  4. Carlino, Gerald A., 1985. "Declining city productivity and the growth of rural regions: A test of alternative explanations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 11-27, July.
  5. Brueckner, Jan K., 1987. "The structure of urban equilibria: A unified treatment of the muth-mills model," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 821-845 Elsevier.
  6. Xavier Gabaix, 1999. "Zipf'S Law For Cities: An Explanation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 739-767, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zhang, Sumei & Guldmann, Jean-Michel, 2009. "Estimating suppressed data in regional economic databases: A goal-programming approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(2), pages 521-537, January.
  2. Raven Molloy & Christopher L. Smith & Abigail Wozniak, 2011. "Internal migration in the United States," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Satyajit Chatterjee, 2006. "A quantitative assessment of the role of agglomeration economies in the spatial concentration of U.S. employment," Working Papers 06-20, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  4. Greg Kaplan & Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, 2012. "Understanding the long-run decline in interstate migration," Working Papers 697, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  5. Eckhardt Bode & Peter Nunnenkamp & Andreas Waldkirch, 2012. "Spatial effects of foreign direct investment in US states," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 16-40, February.
  6. Desmet, Klaus & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2006. "Employment concentration across U.S. counties," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 482-509, July.
  7. Satyajit Chatterjee, 2004. "On the Contribution of Agglomeration Economies to the Spatial Concentration of U.S. Employment," 2004 Meeting Papers 192, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. Satyajit Chatterjee, 2004. "On the Contribution of Agglomeration Economies to Spatial Concentration of US Employment," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 164, Econometric Society.
  9. Xavier Gabaix & Yannis M. Ioannides, 2003. "The Evolution of City Size Distributions," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0310, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  10. André van Stel & Martin Carree & Emilio Congregado & Antonio Golpe, 2013. "Self-employment and Job Generation in Metropolitan Areas, 1969-2009," Scales Research Reports H201306, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  11. Nicola Pontarollo, 2013. "Structural change, productivity growth and Structural Funds in European regions," ERSA conference papers ersa13p747, European Regional Science Association.

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